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9 publications mentioning mtr-MIR171h

Open access articles that are associated with the species Medicago truncatula and mention the gene name MIR171h. Click the [+] symbols to view sentences that include the gene name, or the word cloud on the right for a summary.

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[+] score: 339
That this mo del applies to the miR171h- NSP2 target pair is in agreement with the results from the ectopic mis -expression of miR171h by 35S driven expression which leads to a drastic reduction in NSP2 transcript levels and mycorrhizal colonization (this study and [[32]]) as well as with the 35S driven ectopic mis -expression of a miR171h-resistant NSP2 version leading to over-colonization of the root system and root apices, whereas ectopic mis -expression of the wild type NSP2 transcript, which can be cleaved by miR171h, does not [[32]]. [score:11]
The spatio-temporal expression of miR171h and NSP2 is tightly linked to the nutritional status of the plant and, together with the results from the overexpression analysis, points to an important function of miR171h to integrate the nutrient homeostasis in order to safeguard the expression domain of NSP2 during both, arbuscular mycorrhizal and root nodule symbiosis. [score:7]
Even though we cannot exclude the possibility that miR171h induction by high phosphate fertilization has an impact on mycorrhizal repression by restricting NSP2 expression, we rule out that this effect is solely dependent on miR171h, because nsp2-2 plants still respond to high phosphate treatment with repression of mycorrhizal colonization (Additional file 1: Figure S4) even though the NSP2 dependent regulation is genetically knocked out, indicating that other regulatory circuits act epistatically to the miR171h- NSP2 regulatory circuit. [score:7]
In this study we show that miR171h negatively regulates both types of root endo-symbioses through perception of the nutritional status of the host plant and shows a mutually exclusive expression pattern with its target NSP2 in the root cortex of M. truncatula plants. [score:6]
We therefore conclude that miR171h acts as a promoter dampener, which protects specific cell-types of the root at distinct nutritional and symbiotic conditions from NSP2 mis -expression in a mutually exclusive expression pattern, whereas the overall transcript abundance of NSP2 in wild-type Medicago truncatula roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is mainly determined by its promoter activity rather than direct cleavage by miR171h. [score:6]
Its expression in nodules is dependent on the presence of Mesorhizobium loti, which indicates that the regulation of miR171h expression has a higher level of complexity than previously thought. [score:6]
However, owing to the mutually exclusive expression pattern of the miR171h- NSP2 target pair during mycorrhizal symbiosis as discussed below, we favor the aforementioned explanation. [score:5]
The data of our study suggests that spatial restriction seems to be a predominant regulatory mechanism of miR171h during root nodule development, in contrast to the segregated expression pattern discussed above. [score:5]
Together with the results from the overexpression analysis, our data points to an important function of miR171h to integrate the nutrient homeostasis in order to safeguard the expression of NSP2 during both, arbuscular mycorrhizal and root nodule symbiosis. [score:5]
This mutually exclusive expression pattern is especially pronounced at full nutrition conditions where the miR171h is strongly expressed in all root tissues, whereas the NSP2 promoter is completely inactive with the exception of the central cylinder. [score:5]
Ectopic over -expression of the long miR171h primary transcript led to a significant reduction in the number of root nodules (Figure  8) and therefore could demonstrate that miR171h over -expression represses root nodule symbiosis, additional to its described capability to restrict mycorrhizal root colonization [[32]]. [score:5]
These results show that mature miR171h accumulation is consistent with its spatial origin of transcription and point to a protective role of miR171h against target mis -expression in root nodules and probably arbuscule containing cells. [score:5]
The presented results indicate that phosphate dependent regulation of miR171h and its modest induction in mycorrhizal roots is not dependent on CRE1; the latter assumption is in agreement with the fact that the cre1-1 mutation has no statistically significant effect on the mycorrhizal marker gene expression and thus mycorrhizal colonization (Figure  4C). [score:5]
Figure 4 The cre1-1 mutation does not affect phosphate dependent regulation of miR171h as well as NSP2 transcript abundance and has no effect on mycorrhizal induced expression of NSP2 and arbuscular mycorrhizal marker genes. [score:5]
Both types of root endosymbiosis are regulated by NSP2, which is a target of microRNA171h (miR171h). [score:4]
Taken together we conclude that the miR171h expression is regulated by the phosphate status of the plant in a nitrogen dependent manner controlled by an unknown genetic factor, in addition to the previously demonstrated inducing effect of myc-LCOs [[32]]. [score:4]
As the slight induction in the data of Gomez et al. [[49]] is not significant and Lauressergues et al. [[32]] observed a reduction in NSP2 levels upon R. irregularis colonization it is clear that there is at least one other unknown factor involved in the regulation of the miR171h-NSP2 target pair. [score:4]
Although, recent data implies that miR171h specifically restricts arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in the root elongation zone of Medicago truncatula roots, there is limited knowledge available about the spatio-temporal regulation of miR171h expression at different physiological and symbiotic conditions. [score:4]
Taken together, our data provides profound evidence that miR171h can directly influence the root nodule symbiosis and we hypothesize that miR171h protects the root of the plant from NSP2 mis -expression in the meristematic zone of indeterminate nodules and therefore prevents bacterial invasion of this tissue, analogous to the protection of the root tip from colonization with mycorrhizal fungi [[32]]. [score:4]
To analyze the biological function of the observed spatial regulation of NSP2 and miR171h transcription, we ectopically over-expressed miR171h in M. truncatula roots. [score:4]
Also, it was shown that the expression of both, miR171h and NSP2, is induced upon cytokinin treatment and that this regulation is dependent on Cytokinin Response1 (CRE1) [[33]]. [score:4]
Based on this knowledge we hypothesized that the expression levels of miR171h at high phosphate conditions might be dependent on CRE1 as a direct effect of induced cytokinin levels in these plants. [score:4]
Expression data of miR171h implies that this miRNA is induced by full nutrition conditions [[30]] and we hypothesized that miR171h is regulated by the phosphate status of the plant. [score:4]
Previous attempts to overexpress miR171h and miR171c in M. truncatula and L. japonicus failed, which could be explained by the use of the 35S promoter, which seems to be diminished in arbuscule containing cells [[52]] and root nodules [[53],[54]] and thus might lead to a variation of the results. [score:3]
One of the recently identified miRNAs, which specifically target genes essential for root endosymbiosis is mtr-miR171h [[30]]. [score:3]
The root-transformed plants were either inoculated with R. irregularis or S. meliloti to analyze the impact of miR171h over -expression on AMS or RNS, respectively. [score:3]
Recently, it has been shown that miR171h expression is induced by cytokinin treatment and dependent on the CRE1 pathway [[33],[46]] i. e. that the loss of CRE1 leads to loss of miR171h induction by cytokinins. [score:3]
Induced expression of miR171h at high phosphate conditions is not dependent on CRE1. [score:3]
Our demonstrated phenotype might be explained by a dosage dependent effect of the miR171h overexpression, because the primary transcript used in this study encodes two miR171h duplexes [[31]] and thus the maximum abundance has likely been doubled, balancing the lower 35S activity in root nodules. [score:3]
MiR171h overexpression construct (MIR171h-GFP) in pK7WG2D [[37]] and sensor constructs with either wild-type (MBS-NSP2) or mutated miR171h (MBS-mut) binding site of NSP2 cloned in pGWB455 [[38]]. [score:3]
The first construct, MIR171h-GFP, contained an 811 bp fragment of the MIR171h primary transcript [[31]], which was constitutively expressed by a 35S-promoter. [score:3]
Interestingly, a novel member of the miRNA171 family, miR171h, was shown to target NSP2 [[30],[31]]. [score:3]
Additionally, a recent study employing deep sequencing of Lotus japonicus nodules revealed a non-canonical miR171 isoform, related to Medicago miR171h, which targets LjNSP2 [[36]]. [score:3]
In contrast to the nodule symbiosis, where CRE1 is clearly involved in miR171h and NSP2 regulation [[33]], these results do not clearly demonstrate that the induction of NSP2 in mycorrhizal roots is directly mediated by CRE1. [score:3]
Co-infiltra2on of miR171h overexpression and mRFP sensor constructs. [score:3]
In summary, ectopic overexpression of the primary miR171h transcript in roots of M. truncatula is leading to a phenotype analogous to the nsp2-2 mutant phenotype during mycorrhizal and nodule symbiosis. [score:3]
The relative expression of mature miR171h (A) or NSP2 (B) in roots of either WT plants (grey bars) or cre1-1 plants (white bars) determined at different phosphate fertilization and mycorrhizal conditions. [score:3]
At 5 weeks post inoculation, over -expression of pri-miR171h led to a very strong accumulation of mature miR171h resulting in a drastic reduction of NSP2 transcript levels (Figure  8A and B). [score:3]
At high phosphate conditions, no significant difference in the relative abundance of miR171h between cre1-1 and wild type plants could be observed, indicating that the phosphate -induced expression of miR171h is not mediated by CRE1. [score:3]
These results indicate an additional regulating role of miR171h in nodule symbiosis, however a direct involvement could not be demonstrated so far [[32],[36]]. [score:3]
Increased miR171h expression seen during RNS (Figure  2) therefore is not due to the lack of nitrogen fertilization. [score:3]
Similar to miR171h, the expression of NSP2 is induced upon cytokinin treatment in a CRE1 -dependent manner during high phosphate and low nitrogen conditions [[33]]. [score:3]
Quantitative Real-time PCR revealed that miR171h and NSP2 transcript levels show a clear anti-correlation in all tested conditions except in mycorrhizal roots, where NSP2 transcript levels were induced despite of an increased miR171h expression. [score:3]
Our data revealed that the spatio-temporal expression of miR171h and NSP2 is tightly linked to the nutritional status of the plant and reflecting the different physiological conditions at which both types of endosymbiosis are favored by a host legume plant. [score:3]
Left panes show relative expression values (normalized to MtPdf2 and MtEf1) of selected transcripts and mature miR171h and right panes display box-plots of symbiotic parameters, i. e. (A) mycorrhizal root colonization intensity [[42]] and (B) number of root nodules per cm of primary root length. [score:3]
Overexpression of miR171h in M. truncatula roots led to a reduction in mycorrhizal colonization and to a reduced nodulation by Sinorhizobium meliloti. [score:3]
Furthermore, a recent study from De Luis et al. [[36]] in L. japonicus identified a homologue of miR171h, lja-miR171c, in determinate root nodules, which similarly targets LjNSP2. [score:3]
In vivo confirmation of NSP2 gene silencing by miR171h using miR171h overexpression and mRFP sensor constructs. [score:3]
Accordingly, it might be assumed that the mutually exclusive expression pattern of miR171h has been evolved to avoid hijacking of the NSP2 signaling pathway by pathogens, creating only a narrow conditional window to allow the formation of beneficial symbiotic interactions, presumably relying on a previous signal from a beneficial symbiotic partner. [score:3]
Expression of an 811 bp miR171h primary transcript mediates NSP2 transcript cleavage in vivo. [score:3]
This assumption has been strengthened by showing miRNA171h expression affects the mycorrhizal colonization, is induced by Myc-LCOs, and is conserved among mycotrophic plants [[32]]. [score:3]
Over -expression of miR171h leads to a reduced mycorrhizal colonization and reduced nodule numbers. [score:3]
In this work, we provided experimental proof that miR171h is functionally expressed from an at least 811 bp long primary transcript. [score:3]
It has been recently shown that miR171h overexpression leads to a reduction of mycorrhizal root colonization [[32]] and it has been proposed to act specifically in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. [score:3]
The microscopic analysis of the mycorrhizal phenotype [[42]] showed a concomitant reduction in the mycorrhizal intensity to similar levels as the nsp2-2 mutant line (Figure  8A), but no significant reduction of the arbuscule abundance was observed in the pri-miR171h overexpressing plants (Additional file 1: Figure S6). [score:3]
Therefore, is might be assumed that the suppression of mycorrhizal symbiosis at high phosphate conditions is dependent on the miR171h- NSP2 regulon. [score:3]
NSP2 transcript levels in mycorrhizal roots are elevated despite of increased miR171h expression. [score:3]
Figure 6 The NSP2 and the MIR171h promoter show distinct expression domains in root nodules. [score:3]
We show that miR171h is functionally expressed from an unusual long primary transcript, previously predicted to encode two identical miR171h strands. [score:3]
Figure 2 Relative expression levels of mature miR171h and NSP2 transcripts in M. truncatula roots. [score:3]
To investigate the miR171h and NSP2 expression in mycorrhizal roots over a time-course of AM symbiosis development, an experiment of 6 weeks was carried out and RNA accumulation of marker genes for AM symbiosis development and function were analyzed (Additional file 1: Figure S2). [score:3]
The target of miR171h, NSP2, is a GRAS-type transcription factor, which is essential for the formation of root nodule symbiosis [[13],[43],[44]], strigolactone biosynthesis [[12]] and is involved in the Myc-factor signaling pathway [[7]]. [score:3]
A recent study of cis regulatory elements of the NSP2 promoter gave evidence that NSP2, as well MIR171h, transcription is directly influenced by cytokinin and depends on the cytokinin receptor CRE1 [[33]]. [score:3]
Figure 8 Ectopic overexpression of MIR171h leads to a strong repression of arbuscular mycorrhizal and root nodule symbiosis. [score:3]
Figure 1 In vivo confirmation of NSP2 gene silencing by miR171h using MIR171h overexpression and mRFP sensor constructs. [score:3]
When comparing the spatial distribution of the MIR171h- and NSP2-promoter, it becomes evident that they predominantly show a mutually exclusive expression pattern, especially at full nutrition (cortex and root epidermis) and mycorrhizal conditions (root epidermis). [score:3]
However, the data from the current study give strong evidence that the expression of miR171h is mainly induced by high phosphate availability (Figure  2). [score:3]
This implies that plant roots which over-accumulated mature miR171h were less colonized by the mycorrhizal fungus whereas arbuscule development in colonized root areas was not impaired. [score:2]
For this purpose, M. truncatula roots were transformed with the construct, MIR171h-GFP (Figure  1), already used for the leaf infiltration assay to drive the constitutive expression of pri-miR171h. [score:2]
Data from Arabidopsis and Rapeseed did not imply that the miR171 family is regulated by phosphate and nitrogen availability [[45]]. [score:2]
These results indicate that both NSP2 and MIR171h show a complex regulation of their transcription, which depends on the symbiotic status of the roots and the nutrient fertilization regime. [score:2]
It is possible that the phosphate dependent regulation of a miR171 family member is dependent of the ability to undergo root endosymbiosis, because the miR171h isoform is only present in AMS capable plants [[27],[32]]. [score:2]
Additionally, we also found significantly reduced nodule numbers in roots over -expressing mature miR171h compared to the vector controls (Figure  8B). [score:2]
Given the above-mentioned role of NSP2, miR171h has been implicated in regulating root endosymbiosis by controlling a key component of the Sym-pathway [[27]]. [score:2]
The upper part of the picture shows a western blot where mRFP was detected, indicating the presence of the sensor; the lower part shows a western blot with detection of GFP, indirectly indicating the presence of miR171h. [score:2]
Interestingly, the promoter GUS reporter assays suggest that the expression of miR171h is not merely regulated by phosphate per se but rather by a combination of phosphate and nitrogen levels, because the activity of the miR171h promoter is absent at high phosphate and low nitrogen conditions compared to full nutrition conditions (Figure  5C and D). [score:2]
Figure 5 The NSP2 and the miR171h promoter show distinct regulation in response to nutrients and mycorrhizal colonization. [score:2]
This clearly showed that the expression of pri-miR171h increases in mycorrhizal roots from 2 weeks post inoculation on, as compared to non-mycorrhizal roots under the applied conditions (−P, +N). [score:2]
Reporter fusions confirm the complex and spatial regulation of NSP2- and miR171h- promoter activities. [score:2]
Also, miR171h transcription is directly induced by high phosphate nutrition [[30]]. [score:2]
Both miR171h and NSP2 transcripts display a complex regulation pattern, which involves the symbiotic status and the fertilization regime of the plant. [score:2]
Mycorrhizal parameters from root transformed wild type and miR171h overexpression plants compared to nsp2-2 plants. [score:2]
These might involve specific regulation by additional miR171h target genes [[30],[32]] not investigated in this study, which might be preferably silenced by miR171h instead of NSP2 at the conditions tested by us. [score:2]
Representative young and mature nodules are shown in Figure  6. The MIR171h promoter showed only weak activity in young nodules (Figure  6A) but in mature nodules an increased activity was visible at the nodule tip with the strongest activity matching the meristematic zone and getting gradually weaker in the direction of the subsequent infection and nitrogen fixation zones (Figure  6B). [score:2]
These results confirmed that NSP2 is regulated by miR171h through specific binding of this miRNA to its previously identified binding site and is consistent with previous degradome results [[30]] and RACE experiments [[32]]. [score:2]
This suggests that the long primary transcript described by Branscheid et al. [[28]] resembles the endogenous source of mature miR171h in M. truncatula. [score:1]
We found only weak signals of mature miR171h accumulation in all arbuscule-containing cells, however the MIR171h promoter activity was only observed in distinct arbuscule-containing cells (Figure  5A). [score:1]
We therefore used promoter-reporter fusions to localize the promoter activity of MIR171h and NSP2 in roots grown at different nutritional and symbiotic conditions. [score:1]
Figure 7 Localization of mature miR171h accumulation in mycorrhizal roots and root nodules via in-situ hybridization. [score:1]
The fluorescence was restored when MBS-mut and MIR171H-GFP were co-infiltrated, indicating that the loss of mRFP fluorescence was specifically due to miR171h -mediated sensor cleavage. [score:1]
Mature miR171h accumulates the meristematic zone of root nodules. [score:1]
However, so far functional analysis of miR171h has been carried out with the primarily identified partial precursor encoding only a single miRNA duplex [[32]]. [score:1]
To confirm the functionality of the predicted 811 bp primary transcript of miR171h [[31]] and the potential to silence NSP2 in vivo, we applied miRNA sensor constructs. [score:1]
An increased level of both NSP2 and miR171h in mycorrhizal roots suggests that these transcripts might be spatially separated in roots. [score:1]
Roots were transformed with promoter-uidA fusions of either the MIR171h (A and B) or the NSP2 (C and D) promoter. [score:1]
Therefore we assume that the abundance of NSP2 transcript levels in mycorrhizal roots is maintained by a miR171h-independent factor. [score:1]
At phosphate starvation, the promoter of MIR171h was mainly active in the central cylinder and the endodermis (Figure  5B). [score:1]
Cleavage of NSP2 transcripts by miR171h has been verified by RACE -based methods [[30],[32],[36]]. [score:1]
Cartoon representation summarizing the localization of the NSP2 and MIR171h promoter. [score:1]
During nitrogen starvation no major MIR171h-promoter activity could be observed except in some isolated cortical cells (Figure  5C), which might represent spontaneous promoter activity or staining artifacts. [score:1]
To localize the site of mature miR171h accumulation in mycorrhizal and nodulated roots, we used in situ hybridization with a miR171h-specific LNA probe (Figure  7). [score:1]
In contrast to miR171h, the NSP2 promoter showed a more complex activity pattern in roots of nitrogen-starved plants. [score:1]
LNA probes against mtr-miR171h were custom designed by Exiqon. [score:1]
Whether additional miR171 family members are phosphate responsive in these plant species is not known. [score:1]
Proteins were extracted from leaves infiltrated with MIR171h-GFP, MBS-NSP2 or MBS-mut and co-infiltration of both constructs. [score:1]
The miR171h binding site of MtNSP2 and a miR171h non-cleavable sequence (scramble) were obtained by gene synthesis by Eurofins® (MWG® Operon) and cloned into the 35S driven binary vector pGWB455 [[55]] used for N-terminal mRFP protein fusions, resulting in the constructs MBS-NSP2 or MBS-mut, respectively. [score:1]
Specific miR171h LNA probes (A and C) or scramble probes (B and D) were used for in situ hybridization to localize mature miR171h molecules in mycorrhizal roots (A,B) or root nodules (C,D). [score:1]
These results demonstrate that the promoter activities of NSP2 and MIR171h are mainly mutually exclusive and are affected by phosphate as well as nitrate fertilization and by root colonization with R. irregularis and S. meliloti. [score:1]
As a control, the MBS of NSP2 was mutated to a scrambled sequence (MBS-mut), which was unable to bind miR171h. [score:1]
Roots were transformed either the MIR171h-GFP (red) or the empty vector (black). [score:1]
Similar to the MIR171h promoter, the NSP2 promoter was also active in the root cortex in the vicinity of young and mature nodules. [score:1]
The resulting construct was named MIR171h-GFP. [score:1]
MiR171h has later been predicted to be produced from an 811 bp long primary transcript encoding two miR171h loci on a single arm of its fold-back structure [[31]]. [score:1]
Additionally, the time-course confirms elevated NSP2 transcript levels in mycorrhizal roots, despite of enhanced miR171h accumulation. [score:1]
MIR171h transcription and accumulation is restricted to the meristematic zone, which was confirmed by in-situ hybridization (Figure  7). [score:1]
A 1248 bp fragment upstream of the NSP2 coding sequence and a 900 bp fragment upstream of the miR171h primary transcript were fused to a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. [score:1]
No miR171h accumulation could be detected in the nitrogen fixation zone (Figure  7C). [score:1]
Mature miR171h molecules accumulated to the meristematic zone of nodules with the signal intensity gradually decreasing towards the infection zone. [score:1]
For each sensor construct, co-infiltration experiments with the MIR171h-GFP construct were carried out. [score:1]
Consistent with the location of the miR171h promoter activity, we found an accumulation of mature miR171h in the central cylinder of mycorrhizal roots (Figure  7A). [score:1]
At full nutrition condition the MIR171h (Figure  5D) and NSP2 promoter (Figure  5I) showed contrasting localizations, where the MIR171h promoter was active in all root cells with the strongest signals in the central cylinder. [score:1]
As expected from the transcript accumulation pattern, promoter activity pattern of both MIR171h and NSP2 showed drastic changes in response to different phosphate and nitrate fertilization treatments (Figure  5). [score:1]
The second construct, miR171h binding site (MBS)-NSP2, represented the actual miRNA sensor. [score:1]
LB: left boarder, Kan [R]: kanamycin resistance gene (nptII), Tnos: nopaline synthase terminator, MIR171h: miR171h primary transcript, P [35S]: 35S promoter, green-fluorescent protein (GFP) cassette (pRolD–EgfpER–t35S), 5xMBS [NSP2]: 5 repeats of miR171h binding site sequence of NSP2, 5xMBS [mut]: 5 repeats of a mutated version of the miR171h binding site sequence of NSP2. [score:1]
Previous studies suggested that miR171h is induced in the root elongation zone of mycorrhizal roots and that NSP2 transcript levels are slightly repressed in mycorrhizal roots [[32]]. [score:1]
Next we analyzed the promoter activity of MIR171h and NSP2 in root nodules of plants grown at high phosphate, without nitrate and inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti. [score:1]
It was composed of a 35S-promoter driven mRFP fused to five repeats of the miR171h binding site of NSP2. [score:1]
Promoter regions of mtr-miR171h and MtNSP2, 900 bp as well as 1248 bp upstream of the start codon, respectively, were amplified from wild type (Medicago truncatula cv. [score:1]
As expected, miR171h accumulation was repressed by phosphate starvation (P ≤ 0.05), i. e. positively influenced by high phosphate conditions. [score:1]
Note the decreased mRFP fluorescence due to miR171h -mediated cleavage of mRFP sensor. [score:1]
A clear anti-correlation (r = −0.98; p < 0.05) of miR171h and NSP2 accumulation was present in all but the mycorrhizal condition (Figure  2). [score:1]
In root nodules the MIR171h and NSP2 promoter show an overlapping spatial distribution (Figure  6), with the NSP2 promoter being active in the whole nodule. [score:1]
To analyze whether the induction of miR171h at high phosphate and NSP2 induction in mycorrhizal roots is dependent on CRE1 -mediated cytokinin perception, we investigated the relative expression levels of miR171h and NSP2 in both conditions using cre1-1 mutant plants and wild-type control plants. [score:1]
We cannot rule out the possibility that this phenomenon is due to the lack of proper loading of Argonaute proteins, the major component of the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC), with mature miR171h, but due to a lack of antibodies against M. truncatula AGO1 homologues, this assumption awaits to be tested. [score:1]
When MBS-NSP2 was co-infiltrated with MIR171H-GFP, the mRFP fluorescence was abolished. [score:1]
The 811 bp fragment of pri-miR171h located at the genomic position 31,405,065.. [score:1]
Roots were transformed with promoter-uidA fusions of either the MIR171h (A-D) or the NSP2 (E-I) promoter. [score:1]
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2
[+] score: 55
Other miRNAs from this paper: osa-MIR156a, osa-MIR156b, osa-MIR156c, osa-MIR156d, osa-MIR156e, osa-MIR156f, osa-MIR156g, osa-MIR156h, osa-MIR156i, osa-MIR156j, osa-MIR166a, osa-MIR166b, osa-MIR166c, osa-MIR166d, osa-MIR166e, osa-MIR166f, osa-MIR167a, osa-MIR167b, osa-MIR167c, osa-MIR169a, osa-MIR171a, osa-MIR393a, osa-MIR396a, osa-MIR396b, osa-MIR396c, osa-MIR397a, osa-MIR397b, osa-MIR398a, osa-MIR398b, osa-MIR399a, osa-MIR399b, osa-MIR399c, osa-MIR399d, osa-MIR399e, osa-MIR399f, osa-MIR399g, osa-MIR399h, osa-MIR399i, osa-MIR399j, osa-MIR399k, osa-MIR156k, osa-MIR156l, osa-MIR166k, osa-MIR166l, osa-MIR167d, osa-MIR167e, osa-MIR167f, osa-MIR167g, osa-MIR167h, osa-MIR167i, osa-MIR168a, osa-MIR168b, osa-MIR169b, osa-MIR169c, osa-MIR169d, osa-MIR169e, osa-MIR169f, osa-MIR169g, osa-MIR169h, osa-MIR169i, osa-MIR169j, osa-MIR169k, osa-MIR169l, osa-MIR169m, osa-MIR169n, osa-MIR169o, osa-MIR169p, osa-MIR169q, osa-MIR171b, osa-MIR171c, osa-MIR171d, osa-MIR171e, osa-MIR171f, osa-MIR171g, osa-MIR172a, osa-MIR172b, osa-MIR172c, osa-MIR166g, osa-MIR166h, osa-MIR166i, osa-MIR171h, osa-MIR393b, osa-MIR408, osa-MIR172d, osa-MIR171i, osa-MIR167j, osa-MIR166m, osa-MIR166j, osa-MIR396e, mtr-MIR166a, mtr-MIR169a, mtr-MIR399b, mtr-MIR399d, mtr-MIR393a, mtr-MIR399c, mtr-MIR399a, mtr-MIR399e, mtr-MIR156a, mtr-MIR171a, mtr-MIR156b, mtr-MIR167a, mtr-MIR166b, mtr-MIR169c, mtr-MIR169d, mtr-MIR169e, mtr-MIR171b, mtr-MIR166c, mtr-MIR166d, mtr-MIR169f, mtr-MIR156c, mtr-MIR156d, mtr-MIR399f, mtr-MIR399g, mtr-MIR399h, mtr-MIR399i, mtr-MIR399j, mtr-MIR399k, mtr-MIR166e, mtr-MIR156e, mtr-MIR171c, mtr-MIR398a, mtr-MIR172a, mtr-MIR393b, mtr-MIR398b, mtr-MIR168a, mtr-MIR169g, mtr-MIR156f, mtr-MIR399l, mtr-MIR156g, mtr-MIR399m, mtr-MIR399n, mtr-MIR399o, mtr-MIR398c, mtr-MIR156h, mtr-MIR166f, mtr-MIR166g, mtr-MIR171d, mtr-MIR171e, mtr-MIR396a, mtr-MIR396b, mtr-MIR169h, mtr-MIR169b, mtr-MIR156i, mtr-MIR171f, mtr-MIR399p, osa-MIR169r, sly-MIR166a, sly-MIR166b, sly-MIR167a, sly-MIR169a, sly-MIR169b, sly-MIR169c, sly-MIR169d, sly-MIR171a, sly-MIR171b, sly-MIR171c, sly-MIR171d, sly-MIR397, sly-MIR156a, sly-MIR156b, sly-MIR156c, sly-MIR172a, sly-MIR172b, sly-MIR399, osa-MIR827, osa-MIR396f, mtr-MIR2118, osa-MIR2118a, osa-MIR2118b, osa-MIR2118c, osa-MIR2118d, osa-MIR2118e, osa-MIR2118f, osa-MIR2118g, osa-MIR2118h, osa-MIR2118i, osa-MIR2118j, osa-MIR2118k, osa-MIR2118l, osa-MIR2118m, osa-MIR2118n, osa-MIR2118o, osa-MIR2118p, osa-MIR2118q, osa-MIR2118r, mtr-MIR169k, mtr-MIR169j, mtr-MIR399q, osa-MIR396g, osa-MIR396h, osa-MIR396d, osa-MIR5072, mtr-MIR4414a, mtr-MIR4414b, mtr-MIR482, mtr-MIR172b, mtr-MIR172c, mtr-MIR168b, mtr-MIR399r, mtr-MIR156j, sly-MIR482e, sly-MIR482a, mtr-MIR167b, mtr-MIR168c, mtr-MIR408, mtr-MIR396c, mtr-MIR171g, stu-MIR6024, sly-MIR6024, stu-MIR482c, stu-MIR482b, stu-MIR482a, stu-MIR482d, stu-MIR482e, sly-MIR482b, sly-MIR482c, stu-MIR6025, stu-MIR6026, sly-MIR6026, sly-MIR168a, sly-MIR168b, mtr-MIR169i, mtr-MIR172d, mtr-MIR397, mtr-MIR169l, mtr-MIR399s, mtr-MIR399t, stu-MIR7980a, stu-MIR7983, stu-MIR8007a, stu-MIR8007b, stu-MIR7980b, stu-MIR399a, stu-MIR399b, stu-MIR399c, stu-MIR399d, stu-MIR399e, stu-MIR399f, stu-MIR399g, stu-MIR399h, stu-MIR3627, stu-MIR171b, stu-MIR166a, stu-MIR166b, stu-MIR166c, stu-MIR166d, stu-MIR171a, stu-MIR171c, stu-MIR399i, stu-MIR827, stu-MIR172b, stu-MIR172c, stu-MIR172a, stu-MIR172d, stu-MIR172e, stu-MIR156a, stu-MIR156b, stu-MIR156c, stu-MIR156d, stu-MIR171d, stu-MIR167c, stu-MIR167b, stu-MIR167a, stu-MIR167d, stu-MIR399j, stu-MIR399k, stu-MIR399l, stu-MIR399m, stu-MIR399n, stu-MIR399o, stu-MIR393, stu-MIR398a, stu-MIR398b, stu-MIR396, stu-MIR408a, stu-MIR408b, stu-MIR397, stu-MIR171e, stu-MIR156e, stu-MIR156f, stu-MIR156g, stu-MIR156h, stu-MIR156i, stu-MIR156j, stu-MIR156k, stu-MIR169a, stu-MIR169b, stu-MIR169c, stu-MIR169d, stu-MIR169e, stu-MIR169f, stu-MIR169g, stu-MIR169h, sly-MIR403, sly-MIR166c, sly-MIR156d, sly-MIR156e, sly-MIR396a, sly-MIR167b, sly-MIR482d, sly-MIR169e, sly-MIR396b, sly-MIR171e, sly-MIR172c, sly-MIR408, sly-MIR172d, sly-MIR827, sly-MIR393, sly-MIR398a, sly-MIR399b, sly-MIR6025, sly-MIR169f, sly-MIR171f
In M. trunctula, one member of miR171 family (miR171h) regulates AM symbiosis by directly targeting the NSP2 gene (Lauressergues et al., 2012; Hofferek et al., 2014). [score:5]
Two following studies then revealed that M. trunctula miR396 and miR171h regulate root architecture and symbiosis with AM fungi by respectively targeting growth -regulating factor gene (MtGRF) and Nodulation Signaling Pathway2 (NSP2) gene (Lauressergues et al., 2012; Bazin et al., 2013). [score:5]
The up-regulation of miR171 and miR171g in tomato revealed by this study, therefore suggests that a conserved miRNA family was adopted by different plant lineages to regulate AM symbiosis. [score:5]
The direct regulation of miR171 on NPS2 has recently been validated in vitro and miR171h can directly influence the AM in M. trunctula (Lauressergues et al., 2012; Hofferek et al., 2014). [score:4]
Cleavage of miR171 on scarecrow-like proteins is one of the earliest evidenced miRNA-target interactions in plants (Llave et al., 2002b). [score:3]
We identified six AM symbiosis responsive known miRNAs in tomato and revealed that two of the miR171 family members, miR171 and miR171g in tomato, are also capable of targeting NSP2. [score:3]
Besides NSP2, miR171 and miR171g have two other common targets, Solyc08g078800.1.1 and Solyc01g090950.2.1. [score:3]
Our data revealed that two members of miR171 family (miR171 and miR171g) were predicted to target an NSP2 ortholog with low mismatch penalties and also supported by the degradome. [score:3]
Another AM symbiosis responsive miR171 member is miR171e-5p, which has different predicted target gene with the above miR171 members. [score:3]
The microRNA miR171h modulates arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Medicago truncatula by targeting NSP2. [score:3]
MiR171h restricts root symbioses and shows like its target NSP2 a complex transcriptional regulation in Medicago truncatula. [score:3]
Besides NSP2, tomato miR171 and miR171g have another two common targets, Solyc08g078800.1.1 and Solyc01g090950.2.1, which are both annotated as scarecrow-like proteins. [score:3]
This further suggested that some miR171 members might function as common regulators of AM symbiosis in different plant lineages. [score:2]
Therefore, whether the regulation of scarecrow-like proteins by miR171 members has a role in AM symbiosis is interesting. [score:2]
Interestingly, tomato miR171 and miR171g actually share high sequence identity with a miRNA named Mtr-miR171h, which has been reported to regulate AM symbiosis in M. truncatula (Lauressergues et al., 2012; Hofferek et al., 2014). [score:2]
These results suggest that miR171 family may serve as a common regulator of AM symbiosis. [score:2]
MiR171 and miR397 are associated with nodule infection and the nitrogen-fixing ability of Lotus japonicus (De Luis et al., 2012). [score:1]
Five miRNA families (miR399, miR156, miR166, miR171, and miR172) had more than 10 members, and miR156 family, the largest family, had 23 members. [score:1]
Three of them were miR171 family members, including miR171, miR171g, and miR171i. [score:1]
Both of the two genes are annotated as scarecrow-like proteins and their cleavage by miR171 has been validated previously (Huang et al., 2015). [score:1]
[1 to 20 of 20 sentences]
3
[+] score: 38
Both MtGRAS1 and 31 exhibited highest expression in nodules, while Pv-miR171 genes (Pv-miR171-1 and Pv-miR171-2) showed the lowest expression in this tissue. [score:5]
The expression pattern of Pv-miR171 genes were negatively correlated with their targets. [score:5]
Furthermore, the triple scl6 mutants and overexpressing miR171 showed similar pleiotropic phenotypes [34]. [score:3]
Putative Pv-miR171 genes and their target MtGRAS genes. [score:3]
The targets of miR171 were predicted in silico using the website (http://plantgrn. [score:3]
Overexpressing miR171 had pleiotropic phenotypes including plant height, flowering time, leaf architecture, phase transitions and floral meristem determinacy [34– 36]. [score:3]
0185439.g006 Fig 6Putative Pv-miR171 genes and their target MtGRAS genes. [score:3]
Three HAM homologs in Arabidopsis (SCL6-II, SCL6-III, and SCL6-IV) were post-transcriptionally regulated by miRNA171 and play vital roles in the proliferation of meristematic cells [37– 39]. [score:2]
In Arabidopsis, three GRAS members in the HAM subfamily were post-transcriptionally regulated by miR171 (AtSCL6, 22, and 27). [score:2]
The microRNA171(miR171) family is one of the most ancient and well conserved miRNA families which have diverse roles in plant development, such as flowering, meristem identity, and phase transition [32, 33]. [score:2]
Furthermore, three Arabidopsis GRAS genes (SCL6, 22, and 27) in the HAM subfamily are post-transcriptionally regulated by miR171. [score:2]
Here, the two closest homologs of SCL6, MtGRAS1 and MtGRAS31, were identified as having a putative binding site for miR171 (Fig 6A). [score:1]
The Pv-miR171 genes were identified based on the homology searching stem-loop sequence of osa-miR171, which obtained from the website of miRbase (http://www. [score:1]
In buds, MtGRAS1 and 31 accumulated the least transcript, but the transcript of Pv-miR171 genes, especially Pv-miR171-1, was the highest among different tissues(Fig 6B). [score:1]
Two Pv-miR171 genes were detected in the Medicago genome. [score:1]
Interestingly, in the present study, the two closest homologs of AtSCL6 (MtGRAS1 and 31) were found to have a putative binding site for miR171. [score:1]
[1 to 20 of 16 sentences]
4
[+] score: 25
Thus, cytokinin signaling may have a dual mode for regulating NSP2 expression: it can directly activate NSP2 transiently and then repress its expression through activation of miR171 expression (Figure 1). [score:9]
The regulatory mechanism for NSP2 expression is currently a vibrant area of research in plant–microbe interactions; recent evidence indicates that expression of NSP2 is negatively regulated by microRNA 171 (miR171; De Luis et al., 2012; Lauressergues et al., 2012). [score:7]
Expression of miR171 is induced not only during nodule development but also by cytokinin in an MtCRE1 -dependent manner, and the expression pattern is negatively correlated with that of NSP2 (Ariel et al., 2012). [score:6]
The microRNA miR171h modulates arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Medicago truncatula by targeting NSP2. [score:3]
[1 to 20 of 4 sentences]
5
[+] score: 24
Other miRNAs from this paper: mtr-MIR162, mtr-MIR166a, mtr-MIR169a, mtr-MIR399b, mtr-MIR399d, mtr-MIR395a, mtr-MIR395b, mtr-MIR399c, mtr-MIR399a, mtr-MIR399e, mtr-MIR319a, mtr-MIR156a, mtr-MIR171a, gma-MIR156d, gma-MIR156e, gma-MIR156c, gma-MIR166a, gma-MIR166b, gma-MIR168a, gma-MIR172a, gma-MIR172b, gma-MIR319a, gma-MIR319b, gma-MIR156a, gma-MIR398a, gma-MIR398b, gma-MIR319c, gma-MIR156b, gma-MIR169a, mtr-MIR395c, mtr-MIR395d, mtr-MIR395e, mtr-MIR395f, mtr-MIR395g, mtr-MIR395h, mtr-MIR395i, mtr-MIR395j, mtr-MIR395l, mtr-MIR395m, mtr-MIR395n, mtr-MIR395o, mtr-MIR395k, mtr-MIR156b, mtr-MIR164a, mtr-MIR166b, mtr-MIR169c, mtr-MIR169d, mtr-MIR169e, mtr-MIR171b, mtr-MIR166c, mtr-MIR166d, mtr-MIR169f, mtr-MIR156c, mtr-MIR156d, mtr-MIR390, mtr-MIR399f, mtr-MIR399g, mtr-MIR399h, mtr-MIR399i, mtr-MIR399j, mtr-MIR399k, mtr-MIR166e, mtr-MIR156e, mtr-MIR319b, mtr-MIR171c, mtr-MIR398a, mtr-MIR172a, mtr-MIR398b, mtr-MIR168a, mtr-MIR169g, mtr-MIR156f, mtr-MIR399l, mtr-MIR156g, mtr-MIR399m, mtr-MIR399n, mtr-MIR399o, mtr-MIR398c, mtr-MIR164b, mtr-MIR156h, mtr-MIR166f, mtr-MIR164c, mtr-MIR164d, mtr-MIR166g, mtr-MIR171d, mtr-MIR171e, mtr-MIR169h, mtr-MIR169b, mtr-MIR156i, mtr-MIR171f, mtr-MIR399p, gma-MIR162a, gma-MIR164a, gma-MIR169b, gma-MIR169c, gma-MIR171a, gma-MIR390a, gma-MIR390b, gma-MIR171b, gma-MIR482a, gma-MIR1507a, gma-MIR1509a, gma-MIR1511, gma-MIR1512a, gma-MIR1515a, gma-MIR1521a, mtr-MIR1507, mtr-MIR1509a, gma-MIR1507b, gma-MIR2109, gma-MIR172c, gma-MIR172d, gma-MIR172e, gma-MIR1509b, mtr-MIR2118, mtr-MIR169k, mtr-MIR2111c, mtr-MIR2111d, mtr-MIR2111e, mtr-MIR2111g, mtr-MIR2111h, mtr-MIR2111i, mtr-MIR2111m, mtr-MIR2111n, mtr-MIR2111o, mtr-MIR169j, mtr-MIR1509b, mtr-MIR2111b, mtr-MIR2111j, mtr-MIR2111k, mtr-MIR399q, mtr-MIR2678, lja-MIR2111, gma-MIR482b, gma-MIR156f, gma-MIR169d, gma-MIR172f, gma-MIR171c, gma-MIR169e, gma-MIR156g, gma-MIR4416a, gma-MIR156h, gma-MIR156i, gma-MIR162b, gma-MIR164b, gma-MIR164c, gma-MIR164d, gma-MIR166c, gma-MIR166d, gma-MIR166e, gma-MIR166f, gma-MIR166g, gma-MIR166h, gma-MIR168b, gma-MIR169f, gma-MIR169g, gma-MIR171d, gma-MIR171e, gma-MIR171f, gma-MIR171g, gma-MIR319d, gma-MIR319e, gma-MIR319f, gma-MIR390c, gma-MIR398c, gma-MIR408d, gma-MIR2118a, gma-MIR2118b, gma-MIR482c, gma-MIR530a, gma-MIR862a, gma-MIR1507c, gma-MIR171h, gma-MIR171i, gma-MIR169h, gma-MIR1521b, gma-MIR169i, mtr-MIR5204, mtr-MIR5213, mtr-MIR482, mtr-MIR2111l, mtr-MIR2111f, mtr-MIR172b, mtr-MIR172c, mtr-MIR168b, mtr-MIR399r, mtr-MIR156j, gma-MIR862b, gma-MIR403a, gma-MIR403b, gma-MIR171j, gma-MIR395a, gma-MIR395b, gma-MIR395c, gma-MIR397a, gma-MIR397b, gma-MIR408a, gma-MIR408b, gma-MIR408c, gma-MIR156j, gma-MIR156k, gma-MIR156l, gma-MIR156m, gma-MIR156n, gma-MIR156o, gma-MIR162c, gma-MIR166i, gma-MIR166j, gma-MIR169j, gma-MIR169k, gma-MIR169l, gma-MIR169m, gma-MIR169n, gma-MIR171k, gma-MIR172g, gma-MIR172h, gma-MIR172i, gma-MIR172j, gma-MIR319g, gma-MIR319h, gma-MIR319i, gma-MIR319j, gma-MIR319k, gma-MIR319l, gma-MIR319m, gma-MIR482d, gma-MIR1512b, gma-MIR171l, mtr-MIR168c, mtr-MIR408, mtr-MIR2111a, gma-MIR2111a, gma-MIR1512c, gma-MIR530b, mtr-MIR171g, mtr-MIR530, gma-MIR4416b, gma-MIR399a, gma-MIR828a, gma-MIR156p, gma-MIR530c, gma-MIR828b, gma-MIR530d, gma-MIR171m, gma-MIR172k, gma-MIR171n, gma-MIR156q, gma-MIR171o, gma-MIR172l, gma-MIR169o, gma-MIR319n, gma-MIR171p, gma-MIR530e, gma-MIR169p, gma-MIR156r, gma-MIR399b, gma-MIR171q, gma-MIR156s, gma-MIR169r, gma-MIR169s, gma-MIR2111b, gma-MIR2111c, gma-MIR166k, gma-MIR2111d, gma-MIR156t, gma-MIR482e, gma-MIR399c, gma-MIR171r, gma-MIR399d, gma-MIR399e, gma-MIR169t, gma-MIR171s, gma-MIR166l, gma-MIR171t, gma-MIR2111e, gma-MIR2111f, gma-MIR171u, gma-MIR399f, gma-MIR399g, gma-MIR395d, gma-MIR395e, gma-MIR395f, gma-MIR395g, gma-MIR166m, gma-MIR169u, gma-MIR399h, gma-MIR156u, gma-MIR156v, gma-MIR156w, gma-MIR156x, gma-MIR156y, gma-MIR156z, gma-MIR156aa, gma-MIR156ab, gma-MIR164e, gma-MIR164f, gma-MIR164g, gma-MIR164h, gma-MIR164i, gma-MIR164j, gma-MIR164k, gma-MIR166n, gma-MIR166o, gma-MIR166p, gma-MIR166q, gma-MIR166r, gma-MIR166s, gma-MIR166t, gma-MIR166u, gma-MIR169v, gma-MIR390d, gma-MIR390e, gma-MIR390f, gma-MIR390g, gma-MIR395h, gma-MIR395i, gma-MIR395j, gma-MIR395k, gma-MIR395l, gma-MIR395m, gma-MIR1515b, lja-MIR171a, lja-MIR171b, lja-MIR171c, lja-MIR171d, lja-MIR172a, lja-MIR172b, lja-MIR172c, lja-MIR390a, lja-MIR390b, lja-MIR397, lja-MIR408, lja-MIR1507a, lja-MIR1507b, mtr-MIR169i, mtr-MIR172d, mtr-MIR319c, mtr-MIR319d, mtr-MIR397, mtr-MIR169l, mtr-MIR399s, mtr-MIR399t, gma-MIR398d, gma-MIR319o, gma-MIR319p, gma-MIR399i, gma-MIR319q, gma-MIR399j, gma-MIR399k, gma-MIR169w, gma-MIR399l, gma-MIR399m, gma-MIR399n, gma-MIR399o, lja-MIR164, lja-MIR398, lja-MIR168, lja-MIR395, lja-MIR1511, lja-MIR166
In addition, overexpression of miR171h led to a decrease in fungal colonization associated to the down-regulation of mycorrhizal marker genes (Lauressergues et al., 2012). [score:6]
In both species, the specific miR171 isoforms studied were able to cleave the target transcript NSP2, a TF involved in NOD factor signaling. [score:3]
When M. truncatula roots are infected by the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, the increase in miR171h was followed by a concomitant decrease in the corresponding target NSP2. [score:3]
The microRNA miR171h modulates arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Medicago truncatula by targeting NSP2. [score:3]
Therefore, miR171h may be required for nodule but also for mycorrhiza establishment through NSP2 regulation, a node involving cytokinin signaling. [score:2]
The common function of miR171 isoforms in nodulation and mycorrhization reinforces the idea that nodule development may have evolved from AM fungi interactions though a diversification and specialization process. [score:2]
More recently, a novel isoform of miR171 was discovered in M. truncatula and L. japonicus (Devers et al., 2011; Bazin et al., 2012; De Luis et al., 2012), that repress a key actor of symbiotic signaling, NSP2 (Nodulation Signaling Pathway 2, a GRAS TF). [score:1]
Lauressergues et al. (2012) and De Luis et al. (2012) showed that the miR171h and miR171c variants are fundamental to establish symbiotic mycorrhization and nodulation in M. truncatula and L. japonicus, respectively. [score:1]
Finally, the role of miR171 in legumes, first suggested by Devers et al. (2011), emerged through three different reports. [score:1]
Furthermore, as MtNSP2, mt-miR171h was also early activated in response to cytokinins (Ariel et al., 2012). [score:1]
Further analyses of the miR171 family using both miRBase and comparative genomics (Bazin et al., 2012) revealed that this isoform is also present in non-legume species, such as Populus trichocarpa (ptc-miR171) and Citrus sinensis (csi-miR171b). [score:1]
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6
[+] score: 12
Other miRNAs from this paper: mtr-MIR160a, mtr-MIR166a, mtr-MIR169a, mtr-MIR399b, mtr-MIR399d, mtr-MIR393a, mtr-MIR395a, mtr-MIR395b, mtr-MIR399c, mtr-MIR399a, mtr-MIR399e, mtr-MIR156a, mtr-MIR171a, mtr-MIR395c, mtr-MIR395d, mtr-MIR395e, mtr-MIR395f, mtr-MIR395g, mtr-MIR395h, mtr-MIR395i, mtr-MIR395j, mtr-MIR395l, mtr-MIR395m, mtr-MIR395n, mtr-MIR395o, mtr-MIR395k, mtr-MIR156b, mtr-MIR167a, mtr-MIR164a, mtr-MIR160b, mtr-MIR166b, mtr-MIR160c, mtr-MIR169c, mtr-MIR169d, mtr-MIR169e, mtr-MIR171b, mtr-MIR166c, mtr-MIR166d, mtr-MIR169f, mtr-MIR156c, mtr-MIR156d, mtr-MIR390, mtr-MIR399f, mtr-MIR399g, mtr-MIR399h, mtr-MIR399i, mtr-MIR399j, mtr-MIR399k, mtr-MIR166e, mtr-MIR156e, mtr-MIR171c, mtr-MIR393b, mtr-MIR169g, mtr-MIR156f, mtr-MIR399l, mtr-MIR156g, mtr-MIR399m, mtr-MIR399n, mtr-MIR399o, mtr-MIR164b, mtr-MIR156h, mtr-MIR166f, mtr-MIR160d, mtr-MIR164c, mtr-MIR164d, mtr-MIR166g, mtr-MIR171d, mtr-MIR171e, mtr-MIR396a, mtr-MIR396b, mtr-MIR169h, mtr-MIR169b, mtr-MIR156i, mtr-MIR171f, mtr-MIR160e, mtr-MIR399p, mtr-MIR1507, mtr-MIR1509a, mtr-MIR2118, mtr-MIR169k, mtr-MIR2590a, mtr-MIR2590b, mtr-MIR2590c, mtr-MIR2590d, mtr-MIR2590e, mtr-MIR2590f, mtr-MIR2592b, mtr-MIR2592c, mtr-MIR2592d, mtr-MIR2592e, mtr-MIR2592f, mtr-MIR2592i, mtr-MIR2592j, mtr-MIR2592o, mtr-MIR2592p, mtr-MIR2592q, mtr-MIR2592r, mtr-MIR2592s, mtr-MIR2597, mtr-MIR2111c, mtr-MIR2111d, mtr-MIR2111e, mtr-MIR2111g, mtr-MIR2111h, mtr-MIR2111i, mtr-MIR2111m, mtr-MIR2111n, mtr-MIR2111o, mtr-MIR2610a, mtr-MIR2610b, mtr-MIR169j, mtr-MIR1509b, mtr-MIR2619a, mtr-MIR2592a, mtr-MIR2592g, mtr-MIR2592h, mtr-MIR2592k, mtr-MIR2592l, mtr-MIR2592m, mtr-MIR2592n, mtr-MIR2111b, mtr-MIR2111j, mtr-MIR2111k, mtr-MIR2630a, mtr-MIR2630b, mtr-MIR2630c, mtr-MIR2630w, mtr-MIR2630x, mtr-MIR2630y, mtr-MIR2630d, mtr-MIR2630e, mtr-MIR2630f, mtr-MIR2630g, mtr-MIR2630h, mtr-MIR2630i, mtr-MIR2630j, mtr-MIR2630k, mtr-MIR2630l, mtr-MIR2630m, mtr-MIR2630n, mtr-MIR2630o, mtr-MIR2630p, mtr-MIR2630q, mtr-MIR2630r, mtr-MIR2630s, mtr-MIR2630t, mtr-MIR2630u, mtr-MIR2630v, mtr-MIR2645, mtr-MIR399q, mtr-MIR5205a, mtr-MIR5205b, mtr-MIR5205c, mtr-MIR5205d, mtr-MIR2592t, mtr-MIR2592u, mtr-MIR2592v, mtr-MIR2592w, mtr-MIR2592x, mtr-MIR2592y, mtr-MIR2592z, mtr-MIR2592ab, mtr-MIR2592ac, mtr-MIR2592ad, mtr-MIR2592ae, mtr-MIR2592af, mtr-MIR2592ah, mtr-MIR2592ai, mtr-MIR2592aj, mtr-MIR2592al, mtr-MIR2592am, mtr-MIR2592an, mtr-MIR2592ao, mtr-MIR2592ap, mtr-MIR2592aq, mtr-MIR2592ar, mtr-MIR2592as, mtr-MIR2592at, mtr-MIR2592au, mtr-MIR2592av, mtr-MIR2592aw, mtr-MIR2592ax, mtr-MIR2592ay, mtr-MIR2592az, mtr-MIR2592ba, mtr-MIR2592bb, mtr-MIR2592bc, mtr-MIR2592bd, mtr-MIR2592be, mtr-MIR2592bf, mtr-MIR2592bg, mtr-MIR2592bi, mtr-MIR2592bj, mtr-MIR2592bk, mtr-MIR482, mtr-MIR5241a, mtr-MIR5241b, mtr-MIR5241c, mtr-MIR2111l, mtr-MIR2111f, mtr-MIR160f, mtr-MIR399r, mtr-MIR156j, mtr-MIR2590g, mtr-MIR5283, mtr-MIR2590h, mtr-MIR2590i, mtr-MIR2590j, mtr-MIR5287a, mtr-MIR5287b, mtr-MIR2619b, mtr-MIR2592bl, mtr-MIR2592bm, mtr-MIR2592bn, mtr-MIR167b, mtr-MIR2111a, mtr-MIR396c, mtr-MIR171g, mtr-MIR530, mtr-MIR169i, mtr-MIR397, mtr-MIR7696a, mtr-MIR7696b, mtr-MIR7696c, mtr-MIR7696d, mtr-MIR169l, mtr-MIR399s, mtr-MIR399t, mtr-MIR2592bo, mtr-MIR2592bp, mtr-MIR2592bq, mtr-MIR2592br
Instead of the conserved SCARECROW-like GRAS TF targets of miR171, these miR171 variants recognize a different but related NSP2 GRAS TF involved in molecular regulation associated with the common symbiosis (sym) pathway [22– 24]. [score:4]
Again, certain miRNAs already known to be involved in the regulation of symbiotic and pathogenic processes, such as miR169 variants [20], miR171h and other variants [22, 23], miR393 [16], miR396 [15], sly-miR482* and miR2118 [19], were found, suggesting co-regulatory roles for the newly discovered miRNAs present in those modules. [score:3]
In addition, lja-miR171c and mtr-miR171h specifically regulate NSP2, which encodes a key GRAS TF involved in both RL and AM symbioses [22- 24]. [score:2]
These miR171 variants thus may have coevolved with NSP2 genes in plants undergoing endosymbioses. [score:1]
Recently, De Luis et al. [22] and Lauressergues et al. [23] showed that specific variants of miR171 control RL symbiosis in Lotus japonicus and AM fungal colonization in M. truncatula, respectively. [score:1]
In fact, few families contained more than five variants and the greatest complexity was found in three conserved families (Additional file 6: Figure S2; Additional file 2: Table S2a), miR156 and miR169 (6 variants each) as well as miR171 (7 variants). [score:1]
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7
[+] score: 7
We hypothesise that NSP genes are targets of the RRs -dependent signalling pathway and that miR171h gene is crucial to regulate their expression in response to abiotic stresses and during early nodule development. [score:7]
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8
[+] score: 7
Other miRNAs from this paper: mtr-MIR166a, mtr-MIR169a, mtr-MIR399b, mtr-MIR399d, mtr-MIR399c, mtr-MIR399a, mtr-MIR399e, mtr-MIR156a, mtr-MIR171a, mtr-MIR156b, mtr-MIR164a, mtr-MIR166b, mtr-MIR169c, mtr-MIR169d, mtr-MIR169e, mtr-MIR171b, mtr-MIR166c, mtr-MIR166d, mtr-MIR169f, mtr-MIR156c, mtr-MIR156d, mtr-MIR399f, mtr-MIR399g, mtr-MIR399h, mtr-MIR399i, mtr-MIR399j, mtr-MIR399k, mtr-MIR166e, mtr-MIR156e, mtr-MIR171c, mtr-MIR398a, mtr-MIR398b, mtr-MIR169g, mtr-MIR156f, mtr-MIR399l, mtr-MIR156g, mtr-MIR399m, mtr-MIR399n, mtr-MIR399o, mtr-MIR398c, mtr-MIR164b, mtr-MIR156h, mtr-MIR166f, mtr-MIR164c, mtr-MIR164d, mtr-MIR166g, mtr-MIR171d, mtr-MIR171e, mtr-MIR396a, mtr-MIR396b, mtr-MIR169h, mtr-MIR169b, mtr-MIR156i, mtr-MIR171f, mtr-MIR399p, mtr-MIR2086, mtr-MIR1510b, mtr-MIR1507, mtr-MIR1510a, mtr-MIR2089, mtr-MIR2118, mtr-MIR169k, mtr-MIR2111c, mtr-MIR2111d, mtr-MIR2111e, mtr-MIR2111g, mtr-MIR2111h, mtr-MIR2111i, mtr-MIR2111m, mtr-MIR2111n, mtr-MIR2111o, mtr-MIR169j, mtr-MIR2111b, mtr-MIR2111j, mtr-MIR2111k, mtr-MIR2630a, mtr-MIR2630b, mtr-MIR2630c, mtr-MIR2630w, mtr-MIR2630x, mtr-MIR2630y, mtr-MIR2630d, mtr-MIR2630e, mtr-MIR2630f, mtr-MIR2630g, mtr-MIR2630h, mtr-MIR2630i, mtr-MIR2630j, mtr-MIR2630k, mtr-MIR2630l, mtr-MIR2630m, mtr-MIR2630n, mtr-MIR2630o, mtr-MIR2630p, mtr-MIR2630q, mtr-MIR2630r, mtr-MIR2630s, mtr-MIR2630t, mtr-MIR2630u, mtr-MIR2630v, mtr-MIR399q, mtr-MIR4414a, mtr-MIR2111l, mtr-MIR2111f, mtr-MIR399r, mtr-MIR156j, mtr-MIR5554a, mtr-MIR5274b, mtr-MIR5558, mtr-MIR408, mtr-MIR2111a, mtr-MIR396c, mtr-MIR171g, mtr-MIR169i, mtr-MIR169l, mtr-MIR399s, mtr-MIR399t
Conversely, 10 members belonging to 6 miRNA families, i. e., miR164, miR169, miR171, miR396, miR398 and miR1510, were down-regulated in response to drought stress (Figure 3b and 3c). [score:4]
In the present study, we found that the known or predicted targets of miR164, miR169, miR171, miR396, miR1510 and miR5558 were either transcription factors or F-box proteins (Table 3, 4). [score:3]
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9
[+] score: 3
We found homologs of known miRNA target genes for several conserved M. truncatula miRNAs, such as SBP for miR156, NAC for miR160, AGO1 for miR168, bZIP for miR165, GRAS for miR171, AP2 for miR172 and low affinity sulphur transporter for miR395. [score:3]
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