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52 publications mentioning ath-MIR159a

Open access articles that are associated with the species Arabidopsis thaliana and mention the gene name MIR159a. Click the [+] symbols to view sentences that include the gene name, or the word cloud on the right for a summary.

1
[+] score: 376
The results also indicate that the expression of MIR159/319 is regulated at post-transcriptional level to switch on the expression of alternative miRNAs during development in a highly spatio-temporal specific manner, and to selectively respond to the disruption of defensive siRNA pathways. [score:7]
Since the non-type 1 MIR159/319 genes are rare and we did not find exact evidence that any species only keep non-type 1 MIR159/319 in their genomes, the non-type 1 MIR159/319 genes might derive from type 1. With regulatory roles in gene expression, expression of miRNAs is also regulated delicately. [score:7]
Expression analysis also showed selective up-regulation of mature MIR159/319 miRNAs in siRNA -deficient mutants of moss and flowering plants (Figure 7 and Additional file 6). [score:6]
Expression of miR159 is abundant and widespread over the whole plant, while miR319 is expressed at much lower level and confined to specific tissues and developmental stages [9]. [score:6]
MiR159 restricts the expression of some MYB transcription factors, while miR319 targets a subset of TCP transcription factor genes [5- 8]. [score:5]
The interplay of miR159 and its target MYB is involved in the regulation of vegetative growth, flowering time, anther development, seed shape and germination [8, 10, 11]. [score:5]
Conversely, differences in expression patterns, target genes and functions indicate that miR159 and miR319 are evolutionarily distinct groups. [score:5]
However, it can not be excluded that the MIR159/319 ACR miRNAs may exert their function over their targets through other mechanisms such as translational repression or RNA mediated DNA methylation [2, 60]. [score:5]
Because the selective up-regulation of MIR159/319 genes is observed in both monocot and eudicots, the regulatory link between MIR159/319 genes and siRNA pathway may have an ancient origin. [score:5]
Despite high similarity in conservation pattern and mature miRNA sequences, miR159 and miR319 have distinct expression patterns, targets and functions. [score:5]
When we analyze the expressions of MIR159/319 using data from AtSBS [25], we found that in the inflorescence tissues of five-week-old Arabidopsis thaliana, the predominant mature products of ath-MIR319a are ACR3 miRNAs, while the ath-MIR319b mainly expresses ACR3 and miR* miRNAs (Figure 5A). [score:5]
However, only the mature miR159 or miR319 are abundantly expressed while the alternative miRNAs are expressed at low levels, indicating that only miR159 or miR319 are incorporated into RISC and stabilized. [score:5]
The observation that ath-MIR159a and ath-MIR159b have very similar expression patterns and are functionally redundant while the three MIR319 paralogues have distinct expression patterns also supports the inferred relative distances among the paralogues of MIR159 and MIR319 in A. thaliana [10, 14]. [score:5]
Increased AGO1 up-regulates miR159 accumulation indicating excessive miR159 might be subjected to active degradation [51]. [score:4]
Taken together, our study provides insights on the evolution of MIR159/319 genes and an unexplored feature of them that the expressions of multiple forms of mature products are post-transcriptionally regulated. [score:4]
Some miRNA processing intermediates are up-regulated in exosome -deficient mutants, including the loop fragment of MIR159 [31]. [score:4]
Our analysis also suggests that post-transcriptional regulations of MIR159/319 expression have evolved during plant evolution, through which MIR159/319 miRNAs respond to defensive siRNA deficiency. [score:4]
Our analyses also suggest that some MIR159/319 have evolved into unusual miRNA genes that are regulated at post-transcriptional level to express multiple mature products with variable proportions under different circumstances. [score:4]
Analyses using data from [GEO:GSE6682] reproduce this phenomenon with the difference that miR159 levels are also up-regulated when the rasiRNA pathway is disrupted (Figure 7B and Additional file 6B) [39]. [score:4]
Selective up-regulation of mature MIR159/319 miRNAs in siRNA -deficient mutants. [score:4]
Selective up-regulation of MIR159/319 ACR miRNAs in rdr2 and dcl2 dcl3 dcl4 triple mutants indicates that intrinsic link between miRNA and the defensive siRNA pathways has evolved in plants (Figure 7). [score:4]
Figure 7 Selective up-regulation of mature MIR159/319 products in siRNA -deficient mutants revealed using high throughput sRNA sequencing data. [score:4]
These findings provide explanation for the conserved phased loop-to-base processing of MIR159/319 genes as framework for post-transcriptionally regulated expressions of their mature miRNAs. [score:4]
These results suggest that the accumulation of specific MIR159/319 miRNAs, e. g., the ACR miRNAs in flowering plants, is regulated either directly or indirectly by siRNA pathways at the post-transcriptional level. [score:4]
Unexpectedly, we found that in siRNA -deficient mutants of species from eudicot, monocot and moss MIR159/319 miRNAs are selectively up-regulated. [score:4]
In contrast to miR159, miR319 and corresponding targets regulate embryonic patterning, jasmonate synthesis, leaf morphogenesis and senescence [6, 12, 13]. [score:4]
However, the up-regulations of MIR159/319 miRNAs are of strong selectivity upon the small RNA products from the same stem-loop suggesting that it is unlikely to be a non-specific process (Figure 7). [score:4]
The up-regulations of MIR159/319 miRNAs in rdr2 or dcl234 triple mutants are very similar to these cases. [score:4]
Click here for file Overall expression profile of the nine partitions for type 1 MIR159/319 genes. [score:3]
Hypothesis has been proposed that the miR159 might evolve from miR319 because miR159 seems more specialized in the spectrum of targets [5]. [score:3]
In Cycas rumphii leaves, the three phased miRNAs at 3' arm, ACR3, sp4 and miR159 are expressed at significant levels, among which ACR3 is the most abundant (Figure 5L). [score:3]
Because small RNA sequencing and PARE are different technologies in nature, the observed differential expressions of MIR159 and MIR319 in Arabidopsis inflorescence are unlikely to be resulted from biased sequencing. [score:3]
The distinct proportion of mature products from the MIR159/319 genes in different clades suggests that the post-transcriptional control of MIR159/319 gene output may have diverged during evolution accounting for the variability of mature miRNA expression profiles of this family. [score:3]
This is consistent with the finding that miR159 is more specialized in target spectrum than the miR319 in A. thaliana [5]. [score:3]
Genome resources used for homology search Small RNA sequencing databases used for MIR159/319 expression analysis We thank authors of the small RNA sequencing and PARE data used in this study including Drs. [score:3]
Another two examples of non-canonical expression of monocot MIR159/319 come from CSPSR data [29] (Figure 5J and 5K). [score:3]
We examined the expression of MIR159/319 in 54 publicly available small RNA sequencing databases from 20 species (Additional file 4). [score:3]
Small RNA sequencing from seed coats and cotyledons of Glycine max [GEO:GSE21825] suggests that gma-MIR159 express ACR3 miRNAs at levels similar to or higher than miR159 in these tissues [28] (Figure 5C). [score:3]
Moreover, our analyses reveal conserved regulatory link of MIR159/319 genes to siRNA pathway through post-transcriptional regulation. [score:3]
We reconstructed the phylogeny of MIR159/319 genes and analyzed their mature miRNA expression. [score:3]
MiR159 can not induce mRNA cleavage of the miR319 -targeted TCP transcription factors due to sequence specificity. [score:3]
In most cases, miR159/319 take up the majority of the sequencing reads, while miRNAs from miR*, ACR5 and ACR3 are expressed at much lower levels. [score:3]
For the gymnosperms and earlier-branching clades, lycopod and moss, we also analyzed the expressions of the MIR159/319 genes using small RNA sequencing data from CSPSR and [GEO:GSE5103, GEO:GSE7320, GEO:GSE12468] [15, 29, 34]. [score:3]
Normalizations are the same as in Figure 5. A-B and D-J: Related databases and series are the same as in Figure 5. C: Mature miRNA expressions of MIR159 and MIR319 from Arabidopsis lyrata leaves and two replicates of flowers stage 1-12. [score:3]
Together with phylogenetic reconstruction and mature miRNA expression analysis, evidences support that the MIR159 and MIR319 have a common origin. [score:3]
The sequences corresponding to the four partitions are colored in the same way as in Figure 2. We also observed the switching on of the MIR159 or MIR319 ACR miRNA expression in monocots. [score:3]
Alternatively, the expression of non-type-1 MIR159/319 genes might be highly spatio-temporal specific or inducible under specific conditions. [score:3]
Click here for file Genome resources used for homology search Click here for file Small RNA sequencing databases used for MIR159/319 expression analysis Click here for file Sequences of the MIR159/319 stem-loops. [score:3]
In Hordeum vulgare plants, expression level of MIR159 ACR3 miRNA is higher than miR159 in leaves but not in inflorescence tissues, indicating shift of mature product proportions in the two tissues (Figure 5J). [score:3]
Third, genes from different early-branching MIR159/319 clades have different responsiveness to the siRNA deficiency in the mature miRNA expressions (Figure 4 and Figure 7). [score:3]
Moss MIR159/319 genes have pronounced expression in sp2 and sp4 miRNAs. [score:3]
Overall expression profile of the nine partitions for type 1 MIR159/319 genes. [score:3]
We also examined the expression of MIR159/319 in maize using data from MaizeSBS [41]. [score:3]
In Nicotiana Tabacum plants, data from Comparative Sequencing of Plant Small RNAs (CSPSR) showed non-canonical expressions of both MIR159 and MIR319 [29] (Figure 5D). [score:3]
The sequences corresponding to the four partitions are colored in the same way as in Figure 2. We also observed the switching on of the MIR159 or MIR319 ACR miRNA expression in monocots. [score:3]
Such intra-stem-loop regulation appears diverged across the early-branching clades of MIR159/319 genes. [score:2]
Across the major clades of MIR159/319 genes (Figure 4), the post-transcriptional regulation of miRNA production seems to be diverged. [score:2]
MiR159 and miR319 are highly conserved miRNAs essential for plant development and fertility. [score:2]
The change in strand bias of miR159 and miR159* have been observed in drb1 mutant plants, which direct strand selection of miRNA duplexes [54]. [score:2]
In light of the intra-stem-loop regulation, the phased loop-to-base processing of miR159/319 stem-loop precursors may have evolved as framework for the tunable mature miRNA production. [score:2]
Interestingly, post-transcriptional regulation of multiple mature miRNAs from some genes of MIR159/319 family has evolved, through which proportion of mature MIR159/319 miRNAs can be changed in a spatio-temporal specific manner or in response to siRNA pathway deficiency. [score:2]
We found spatio-temporal specific shifts in the proportion of miRNA products within MIR159/319 stem-loop precursors during development (Figure 5, Figure 6 and Additional file 5). [score:2]
Taken together, our analysis revealed the evolutionary history of MIR159/319 genes, conservation and variability of post-transcriptional regulation across their extant clades during phylogeny. [score:2]
These results indicate that both in eudicots and monocots, the major products of MIR159 or MIR319 genes shift to ACR miRNAs in a highly spatio-temporal specific manner during plant development. [score:2]
These observations suggest that the post-transcriptional regulation of MIR159/319 may have specialized during evolution and can serve as another feature that could distinguish their subgroups. [score:2]
The phylogeny of highly conserved miRNA genes is largely unknown including the ancient miRNA gene family -- MIR319 and MIR159, which play important roles in plant development [5]. [score:2]
This indicates that the MIR159/319 primary transcripts might be processed into miRNA duplexes directly without the preceding step to liberate the stem-loop precursors consistent with the findings of Chekanova et al. [31]. [score:2]
Moreover, duplicated gene members maintained in one clade of plants, e. g. miR159 and miR319 in flowering plants, tend to diverge into subfunctionalized groups improving the complexity of miRNA regulation. [score:2]
Alternatively, since the theoretical ratio of ACR miRNA to miR159 or miR319 should be one, the variable proportion of MIR159/319 mature products could be resulted from regulation of mature miRNA stability. [score:2]
It can be inferred that extensive duplications of MIR159/319 genes might have occurred in the common ancestor of gymnosperms and angiosperms about 370 Ma, in the period of late Devonian to early Carboniferous. [score:1]
A: Distribution of uncapped 5'RNA end sequencing frequency (vertical axis) in an approximately 1 kb region (horizontal axis) with the precursor stem-loops located at the centre (green for MIR159; orange for MIR319). [score:1]
Briefly, 1) the paired bases for miR or miR* (miR: miR159/319 homologous sequence; miR*: antisense sequence in the stem-loop structure corresponding to miR) must be located within one arm, either the 5' or the 3'; 2) there must be no more than 6 unpaired bases in the miR; 3) no more than 3 bulges in the miR; 4) no more than 3-nt differences between the lengths of miR and miR*; 5) no more than 3 asymmetrically unpaired bases in the miR; 6) no more than 3 contiguous unpaired bases in the miR; and 7) the distance between miR and miR* must be no less than 5 and no more than 300 nucleotides. [score:1]
Nine partitions can be assigned in the type 1 MIR159/319 stem-loops according to conservation pattern. [score:1]
The MIR159/319 genes from moss, lycopod, gymnosperms and angiosperms can be clearly separated into 10 major clades (Figure 4 and Additional file 3). [score:1]
Consensus structure and nucleotides were predicted for the type 1 MIR159/319 genes. [score:1]
Therefore, it is possible that only processing by alternative factors yields abundant ACR miRNAs but less miR159/319 when alternative activity overrides the canonical. [score:1]
Using moss, the earliest-branching clade in land plants, as out group, phylogeny of the MIR159/319 could be determined. [score:1]
This uncharacterized mechanism controlling mature product proportion of MIR159/319 genes is distinguished from those previously found in animals in that multiple mature products from a single miRNA stem-loop precursor can be selectively expressed in different situations. [score:1]
All of the stem-loop sequences of the MIR159 family were aligned using the software T-coffee version 6.06 [68]. [score:1]
B: Detailed PARE-detected cleavage within the MIR159/319 precursor stem-loops. [score:1]
Interestingly, the partitions defined by conservation pattern are consistent with the phasing of mature miRNAs from MIR159/319 stem-loops in that very few reads have lower than 80% overlap with any partition (Additional file 4). [score:1]
From the phylogenetic tree, it can be inferred that an expansion of MIR159/319 family genes might be commitment with the evolution of seed-bearing plants (Figure 4). [score:1]
According to this scenario, when miR159 or miR319 duplexes are produced the same amount of miRNAs derived from the other two duplexes must be generated. [score:1]
We found that not all MIR159/319 precursors have conserved elongated stem and can be well-aligned in the loop-proximal regions. [score:1]
Evolution history of this gene family was revealed that the two clades containing the MIR159 and MIR319 founding members identified in A. thaliana are specific to flowering plants and originated from duplications occurring before the split of gymnosperm and angiosperms. [score:1]
MIR159/319 genes from most of the major land plant clades are obtained making it possible for an informative phylogenetic reconstruction. [score:1]
Figure 3 "Bi-duplex" conservation pattern of type 1 MIR159/319 precursor stem-loops in land plants. [score:1]
The two angiosperm MIR319 clades branched earlier than the angiosperm MIR159 clades. [score:1]
Subsequent duplications led to the formation of gymnosperm clades and angiosperm MIR159 clades (Figure 4). [score:1]
Such a transition is not observed for maize MIR159 (Additional file 5H). [score:1]
Figure 5 Non-canonical proportion of MIR159/319 mature products revealed using high throughput sRNA sequencing data. [score:1]
The asterisks indicate species that harbor MIR159/319 genes newly identified in this study. [score:1]
Homology search for MIR159/319 genes. [score:1]
Figure 6PARE analysis of the A. thaliana MIR159/319 precursor processing. [score:1]
Although miR159 and miR319 are seemingly related in evolution, because of their similarity in mature miRNA sequence, secondary structure, conservation pattern and biogenesis, their origin is still unclear [5, 17]. [score:1]
A distinguished feature of the MIR159 and MIR319 genes conserved from moss to flowering plant is that their stem-loop precursors usually have elongated stem structure. [score:1]
Click here for file Comparison of sequencing abundances of MIR159/319 miRNAs in wild type and siRNA -deficient mutants. [score:1]
MIR159/319 precursors are processed in a phased manner to produce three miRNA duplexes [15, 17, 18]. [score:1]
When sequencing tags can not be unambiguously assigned to a unique MIR159/319 stem-loop, such as maize MIR319 genes in Figure 5I, related paralogues are analyzed collectively. [score:1]
Reconstructed phylogenetic tree of type 1 MIR159/319 genes. [score:1]
Our results support that the MIR159 and MIR319 genes evolve from a common ancestor, which is likely to be a phased stem-loop small RNA. [score:1]
Moreover, partitions defined by the conserved regions are consistent with the phasing of mature MIR159/319 miRNAs from moss to flowering plants [17, 18] (Figure 3 and Additional file 4). [score:1]
In order to study the evolution of MIR159/319 family in land plants, we collected and analyzed a broad set of MIR159/319 stem-loops from a wide range of plant species. [score:1]
The type 2 to 5 MIR159/319 genes seems to be variants evolving from type 1. During evolution, the loop-proximal part on their precursor stem-loops may degenerate in sequence and/or structural conservation to different extent. [score:1]
Similarly, from the phylogenetic tree of MIR159/319 family, we found this ancient miRNA family underwent dynamics of duplication and loss, through which clade or species-specific miRNA gene subgroups have formed. [score:1]
Moreover, a small number of MIR159/319 genes (type 2 to 5) lost conservation of the loop-proximal part corresponding to the ACRs of type 1. Since the correct processing of the loop-proximal miRNA duplex is the prerequisite for the dicing of miR159 or miR319 [17], the ACR-lacking MIR159/319 might become pseudo genes unable to produce mature miRNAs like the ath-MIR159c, which can not be efficiently processed when transformed into plants [5]. [score:1]
Six possible losses in the major clades of MIR159/319 can be deduced from the condensed tree, one in lycopod and five in gymnosperms and angiosperms (Figure 4). [score:1]
Click here for file Reconstructed phylogenetic tree of type 1 MIR159/319 genes. [score:1]
In most cases, angiosperm MIR319 and MIR159 generate miR319 or miR159 as major products (Figure 4, Figure 5 and Additional file 4). [score:1]
Classification of MIR159/319 genes according to conservation pattern. [score:1]
[e ]Number of candidate MIR159/319 genes Figure 2 Examples of the five types of MIR159/319 precursor stem-loops. [score:1]
The three A. thaliana MIR319 paralogues are far more distantly related to each other than that of the ath-MIR159a and ath-MIR159b in the tree, consistent with the inference from the miRNA-carrying segmental duplications in Arabidopsis [23]. [score:1]
In the other line, all of the mature miRNA sequences of the MIR159/319 family available in miRbase Version 11.0 were used to BLAST search against the nr, gss, htgs and est databases in the NCBI GenBank [64]. [score:1]
Accumulations of miR159, miR168 and miR165 are insensitive to decreased DCL1 activity unlike other miRNAs such as miR173, indicative of alternative dicer activity for the processing of these miRNAs [51]. [score:1]
However the phylogeny of MIR159 and MIR319 genes and why such unusual style of miRNA production has been conserved during evolution is not well understood. [score:1]
org) and the 11 plant genomes listed in Additional File 7 using ath-miR159a or ath-miR319a as queries [63]. [score:1]
In Arabidopsis, the 21-nt mature miR159 and miR319 share 17 identical nucleotides. [score:1]
Figure 4 Condensed phylogenetic tree of type 1 MIR159/319 precursor stem-loops. [score:1]
Probably, which of the MIR159/319 mature miRNAs are incorporated into the RISC and stabilized is tunable. [score:1]
[e ]Number of candidate MIR159/319 genes Figure 2 Examples of the five types of MIR159/319 precursor stem-loops. [score:1]
Thus, MIR159 and MIR319 appear to be related in origin and considerably diverged. [score:1]
The smo-MIR319 and smo-MIR159 are two extant genes of two clades branching before the emergence of seed plants (Figure 4 and Additional file 3). [score:1]
Second, genes from angiosperm major MIR319 clade and major MIR159 clade can have different proportions of mature miRNAs in specific organs of the same plant (Figure 4, Figure 5 and Additional file 5). [score:1]
The tags that represent uncapped 5' RNA ends were mapped to the Arabidopsis thaliana MIR159 and MIR319 genes, stem-loops or an approximately 1 kb sequence with the stem-loop at the centre. [score:1]
Known MIR159/319 sequences were collected from the miRbase Version 11.0 [19], homologues in EST were identified by Jones-Rhoades and Bartel [7], and the Brassicaceae MIR319 sequences were identified by Warthmann et al. [21]. [score:1]
All extant MIR159/319 genes of moss derive from the earliest branching clade (Figure 4 and Additional file 3). [score:1]
The ACR miRNAs are much more variable than the miR159 or miR319 (Figure 3), indicating different selection pressure imposed on the two miRNAs on the same stem-loop. [score:1]
Second, the inferred phylogenetic tree shows that the MIR159 and MIR319 founding members in A. thaliana evolve from two early-branching clades specific to flowering plants, which derived from the common ancestor of seed plant MIR159/319 (Figure 4 and Additional file 3). [score:1]
Since the processing of miR159/319 genes depends on correct processing of the loop-proximal duplex [17], these MIR159/319 genes may lose their activity due to unsuccessful processing. [score:1]
Our results support a common origin of MIR159 and MIR319 from two aspects. [score:1]
Vertical axis: normalized sequencing abundances of small RNAs; horizontal axis: partitions of the MIR159/319 stem-loops. [score:1]
These duplications initialized the split of MIR159 and MIR319 in flowering plants. [score:1]
Mutant to wild-type Ratio (Vertical axis) of normalized sequencing abundances of mature MIR159/319 miRNAs or small RNA populations with specific lengths for the indicated mutant plants (Horizontal axis). [score:1]
In addition, both MIR319 and MIR159 precursors produce multiple miRNAs in a phased loop-to-base manner. [score:1]
This provides explanations for the conserved three-duplex dicing of the MIR159/319 precursors as a framework for an unknown product-tunable mechanism controlling output from their stem-loops. [score:1]
Through duplication and loss of genes this miRNA gene family formed clades specific to moss, lycopods, gymnosperms and angiosperms including the two major clades of flowering plants containing the founding members of MIR319 and MIR159 genes in A. thaliana. [score:1]
In flowering plants, there are two early-branching clades leading to the founding members of MIR159 and MIR319 identified in A. thaliana respectively [6, 24] (Figure 4 and Additional file 3). [score:1]
Normalized sequencing abundances (vertical axis) of mature miRNAs corresponding to each partition (horizontal axis) of the MIR159/319 genes are illustrated. [score:1]
According to sequence and structural conservation of the loop-proximal regions, we classified the MIR159/319 genes into 5 types (Table 1 and Figure 2). [score:1]
In contrast, the ath-MIR159 genes primarily generate miR159 (Additional file 5A). [score:1]
The gymnosperm Cycas rumphii MIR159 produce three phased miRNAs at comparable levels from 3' arm of the stem-loop precursor in leaves (Figure 5L). [score:1]
Shift in the proportion of mature MIR159/319 products during ontogeny. [score:1]
However, deduced losses are of high confidence in the species for which genome-wide scan of MIR159/319 gene have been performed (see methods). [score:1]
Gene losses supported by search of MIR159/319 gene in the entire genome of least one species are indicated by a star. [score:1]
The duplications and subsequent losses that occurred before the split of monocots and eudicots are more frequent in the MIR319 clade than the MIR159, indicating that the two clades might have evolved in different ways (Figure 4 and Additional file 3). [score:1]
More examples of the proportion of mature products from MIR159/319 genes. [score:1]
The miR319 and miR159 were identified in independent studies using different methods [6, 24]. [score:1]
The inferred phylogeny suggests that the MIR159/319 genes may have formed at least ten extant early-branching clades through gene duplication and loss. [score:1]
With similarities in sequence, conservation pattern and biogenesis, miR159 and miR319 might originate from a common ancestor. [score:1]
After the diversification of lycopod MIR319 and MIR159, clades of MIR159/319 specific to either gymnosperm or angiosperm formed (Figure 4 and Additional file 3). [score:1]
Based on the structural alignment and consensus RNA secondary structure of the type 1 MIR159/319 genes, we reconstructed the phylogenetic tree using a combination of GTR and doublet mo dels in a Bayesian approach [22]. [score:1]
This suggests that the MIR319 and MIR159 genes classified by the founding members identified in A. thaliana originated from a common ancestor, which may have emerged after the split of moss and lycopod MIR159/319 clades. [score:1]
The tree also shows that the angiosperm MIR319 major clade branched earlier than the angiosperm MIR159 clade (Figure 4). [score:1]
Click here for file More examples of the proportion of mature products from MIR159/319 genes. [score:1]
For example, the ABH1 is required for the processing of some pri-miRNAs but not MIR159 [52, 53]. [score:1]
Click here for file Structural alignment of the 231 type 1 MIR159/319 precursor stem-loops. [score:1]
These observations suggest that MIR159 and MIR319 originated from a common phased stem-loop RNA similar to those discovered in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and rice recently [42- 44]. [score:1]
In order to get a comprehensive view of the MIR159/319 gene evolution in land plants, we performed homology search like previous studies to collect the MIR159/319 stem-loop sequences from available data resources as exhaustive as possible [7, 16, 20] (see). [score:1]
Conservation of such an uncommon pattern in biogenesis during the long time evolution of land plants is inexplicable by the known function of miR159 and miR319. [score:1]
The inferred phylogenetic tree reveals the evolutionary history of extant MIR159/319 branches, which might be dated back to the first colonization of land plants about 450 Ma (million years ago). [score:1]
Conservation of the type 1 MIR159/319 genes across land plants indicates the origin of MIR159 and MIR319 from a long stem-loop. [score:1]
Therefore, some if not all type 2 to 5 MIR159/319 genes might be "pseudo-miRNA" genes unable to produce mature miRNAs. [score:1]
Along with the published sequences, we obtained 251 MIR159/319 genes and 27 candidates from 76 land plant species (Figure 1 and Additional File 1). [score:1]
Of the six possible losses, four are supported by the absence of ancestral MIR159/319 genes in one or more species where the entire genomes were examined (Figure 4). [score:1]
Noticeably, there is a consensus interior loop in the duplex of miR159/319 and the corresponding miRNA* indicating that selection pressure favor the structural pattern as a whole. [score:1]
[d ]Number of collected or identified stem-loops of MIR159/319 genes. [score:1]
First, general proportions of MIR159/319 mature miRNAs are distinct for the early-branching clades. [score:1]
This is probably due to the preclusion of other types of MIR159/319, which do not have well-conserved loop-proximal regions. [score:1]
A series of duplications occurred in the common ancestor of seed plants leading to the original split of flowering plant MIR159 and MIR319. [score:1]
B: The number of MIR159/319 genes in land plant species is indicated by two separate numbers in square brackets, the first for MIR159 and the second for MIR319. [score:1]
MiR159 and miR319 are highly conserved miRNAs that play important roles in plant growth, morphogenesis and reproduction [4]. [score:1]
In addition, paralogues in one early-branching MIR159/319 clade also show differences in tissue-specific proportion of mature miRNAs and responsiveness to siRNA deficiency. [score:1]
Since MIR159/319 precursors are processed in a phased manner, differential exosome -mediated degradation of the intermediates might result in variable product proportions. [score:1]
Lycopod MIR159/319 genes produce ACR miRNAs in higher levels than miR159/319 in normal state. [score:1]
In the lycopod S. moellendorffii, the predominant products of both smo-MIR159 and smo-MIR319 are ACR5 miRNAs, consistent with the distance in the inferred phylogenetic tree (Figure 4, Figure 5M and Additional file 5J). [score:1]
Phylogeny of the MIR159/319 genes. [score:1]
Then, we reconstructed the phylogenetic tree of MIR159/319 from a structural alignment using RNA mo dels for paired and unpaired nucleotides, thus revealing the evolutionary history of this miRNA gene family. [score:1]
Recent studies show that the MIR159 and MIR319 precursors are processed from loop to base to liberate three phased miRNA duplexes [15, 17, 18]. [score:1]
The naming of the new homologues or candidates, 159 or 319, followed the name of the MIR159/319 gene in the miRbase that had the smallest edit distance in the mature miRNA sequence. [score:1]
Recent studies have shown that both miR159 and miR319 play important roles in reproductive growth of flowering plants [8, 14], indicating their functional relatedness to the evolution of seed bearing in plants. [score:1]
The vertical axis indicates the sequencing abundances, and the horizontal axis indicates partitions of MIR159/319 stem-loops. [score:1]
Homologues identified in following studies are classified into two groups according to sequence similarity to the miR319 and miR159 founding members [19]. [score:1]
We aligned the MIR159/319 stem-loops considering both sequence and RNA secondary structure by a semi-automated strategy (see). [score:1]
The miR319 or miR159 can not be efficiently excised without correct processing of the loop-proximal miRNA duplex [17]. [score:1]
The tree shows that the split of the MIR319 and MIR159 clades in flowering plants and gymnosperms originated from a series of duplications occurring in the common ancestor of seed plants (Figure 4). [score:1]
Sequences of the MIR159/319 stem-loops. [score:1]
A loop-proximal segment on the MIR159/319 stem-loop precursor outside of the miRNA and miRNA* is also conserved, albeit to a much weaker extent [6, 15, 16]. [score:1]
It appears that clade-specific groups of MIR159/319 genes may have formed through the dynamics of gene duplications in ancestors and gene losses in descendants as opposed to the divergence of one ancestral gene into orthologues. [score:1]
However, 5'end of miR159 was the most frequently sequenced site for MIR159 precursors. [score:1]
A: The number of species in the major clades of land plants is indicated in brackets, in which at least one MIR159/319 gene was identified. [score:1]
In this study we showed that MIR159/319 genes with two conserved duplexes in their stem-loops distribute throughout land plants and constitute the most plentiful type classified by conservation pattern. [score:1]
Comparison of sequencing abundances of MIR159/319 miRNAs in wild type and siRNA -deficient mutants. [score:1]
Structural alignment of the 231 type 1 MIR159/319 precursor stem-loops. [score:1]
There is only one experimentally verified example that osa-MIR159a ACR3 miRNA induces site-specific cleavage of an mRNA encoding a GT-2-like transcription factor in rice [62]. [score:1]
Figure 1 Taxonomic distribution of the collected MIR159/319 genes. [score:1]
In rice, analyses using high throughput small RNA sequencing data deposited under [GEO:GSE14462] suggest that osa-MIR159a mainly produces ACR3 miRNAs in the flag leaves (Figure 5G), which is an organ important for grain filling and protection of the spike from being eroded by pathogens. [score:1]
Although clear evidences are absent to support the common origin of miR159 and miR319 [5], they are categorized into one miRNA gene family in the miRbase and some other studies [7, 19]. [score:1]
The differences of miRNA production between MIR159 and MIR319 are also supported by data from Arabidopsis PARE database [25] (Figure 6). [score:1]
We aligned a large number of land plant MIR159/319 stem-loops and reconstructed the phylogenetic tree. [score:1]
Sequences that can't be aligned correctly in the conserved regions outside of miR159/319 and miR159/319* were excluded in subsequent analysis. [score:1]
The ratios for ath-MIR159a and ath-MIR159b ACR3 miRNAs are set to 1 indicating absence or nearly absence of these miRNAs in both wild type and indicated mutants. [score:1]
Similar scenarios are possible for other factors involved in miRNA biogenesis and activity, dysfunction of which affect miR159 in a mild way. [score:1]
Therefore, these two losses and loss of gymnosperm MIR159/319 in 'early branching eudicot MIR319' need to be verified in the future using the whole genomes of gymnosperm species (Figure 4). [score:1]
First, another duplex outside miR159/319 are highly conserved in most MIR159 and MIR319 stem-loops across land plants (Figure 2, Figure 3, Table 1 and Additional file 2). [score:1]
The underlying significance of such unusual style of maturation for the MIR159/319 genes remains unknown. [score:1]
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2
[+] score: 233
In the light of the above studies, it is possible that change in the expression of miR159 targets, OsGAMYB and OsGAMYBL1, in STTM159 transgenic rice plants, could affect the development of agronomic traits of rice such as plant height, grain size and others, which are not seen in plants overexpressing cleavage resistant targets of miR159. [score:10]
In this study, expression of mature miR159 was successfully suppressed by STTM which resulted in the increased expressions of its two targets genes, OsGAMYB and OsGAMYBL1 (GAMYB-LIKE 1). [score:9]
Similarly, overexpressing cleavage-resistant targets such as in the case of OsGAMYB or TaGAMYB1 in rice, may not lead to the similar phenotype as obtained by downregulating miR159. [score:8]
For functional studies of miR159 in rice, we suppressed the expression of miR159 through STTM (Short Tandem Target Mimic, denoted as STTM159), which is an effective tool to block endogenous mature miRNA activity in plant [29]. [score:7]
In general, their expression levels were negatively correlated with the expression level of miR159 except in spikelet (Fig.   1b), suggesting toward a complex relationship between miR159 and its target genes in rice. [score:7]
Recent reports found that plant miR159 mimic could even inhibit breast cancer cell growth by targeting TCF7, a putative mammalian target for miR159 [25]. [score:7]
This could possibly be due to combined higher expression of two miR159 targets as opposed to just one in case of TaGAMYB1 overexpressing lines. [score:7]
These results strongly suggest that reduced expression of miR159 suppressed the expression of these genes to restrain cell proliferation to form smaller organs in STTM159 plants. [score:7]
The phenotype of miR159 overexpressing plants was severe compared to that of the gamyb mutant, indicating toward the phenotypic contributions of other GAMYB-like genes, suppressed in miR159 overexpressing plants [28]. [score:6]
Furthermore, phenotype such as shortened internodes and panicles brought out by suppression of miR159 observed in STTM159, was also observed in the gamyb mutant [33], suggesting that other targets regulated by miR159 might also be responsible for the changed agronomic traits. [score:6]
Considering that miR159 regulates an important agronomic trait of grain size, manipulation of the expression of miR159 or its target genes can help achieve higher rice yield on account of increased grain size. [score:6]
The significant increase in mRNA levels of the target genes in STTM159 plants suggested toward the regulation of targets transcripts by miR159 -mediated cleavage. [score:6]
Together with the smaller organs in STTM159 transgenic plants, all these evidences indicate that higher expression level of OsGAMYB, because of the suppression of miR159, may contribute to the reduced cell division by activating PCD process in STTM159 transgenic plants. [score:5]
To determine the expression patterns of miR159, we analyzed the expression of miR159a by stem-loop qRT-PCR. [score:5]
The interplay of miR159 and its target MYB genes is involved in the regulation of vegetative growth, flowering time, anther development and seed size in Arabidopsis [20– 22]. [score:5]
a Suppressed expression of miR159 in root, leaf, stem, panicle, spikelet and seeds in STTM159 plants. [score:5]
In tomato, a non MYB gene (Solyc12g014120.1) was found to be a target of miR159, and whose overexpression in tomato reduced the size of leaves and induced formation of abnormal and sterile flowers [32]. [score:5]
Till date, reports about miR159 in rice were mostly focused upon genome-wide expression analyses about responses to different nitrogen forms [26] and abiotic stress [27] or upon phenotypic studies by overexpressing its precursor [28]. [score:5]
Expression profiles of miR159 and its target genes in rice. [score:5]
In rice, studies on miR159 were either based upon genome-wide expression analyses focused upon responses to different nitrogen forms and abiotic stress or upon phenotypic studies of transgenic plants overexpressing its precursor. [score:5]
Fig. 5Suppressed expression of miR159 reduces the size of spikelet hulls. [score:5]
Fig. 1Tissue-specific expression analysis of miR159a and its targets. [score:5]
b Expression patterns of miR159a,b and its two targets during rice growth in various tissues. [score:5]
Scale bars, 500 μm; e-f Statistical data of outer layer vascular bundle in stem (e) and small veins between two large veins (f) in wild type and STTM159 plants (n = 20) To further explore the mechanism of osa-miR159 on plant growth and development at genetic level, RNA-sequencing analysis was done using six DAF grains from wild type and STTM159 transgenic plants to compare the global transcriptional profiles of differentially expressed genes between two genotypes. [score:4]
As expected, compared with wild type, expressions of mature miR159 were suppressed effectively in root, leaf, stem, panicle, spikelet, and seeds of transgenic rice STTM159 line 3 and 4 (denoted as STTM159–3 and STTM159–4, respectively) (Fig.   2a). [score:4]
Deregulation of miR159 might be linked with leaf curl disease in tomato [24]. [score:4]
Arabidopsis plants overexpressing miR159a/b do not affect leaf development [19], while mir159ab double mutants form abnormal leaves that are curled upward [20]. [score:4]
To confirm whether miR159 was down regulated in these transgenic lines, the expression levels of mature miR159 were detected by stem-loop qRT-PCR. [score:4]
This phenotype may result from aberrant cell-cycle due to reduced expressions of cell division, and hormone biosynthesis and signaling genes controlled by miR159-regulated gene networks. [score:4]
Further studies are required to explore the underlying pathways governed by OsGAMYB, OsGAMYBL1 and other possible miR159-target genes regulating agronomic traits in rice. [score:4]
Further analysis from the RNA-seq data showed that the decreased cell divisions in STTM159 transgenic plants may result, at least partly from the lower expression of the genes involved in cell cycle and hormone homeostasis, which provides new insights of rice miR159-specific functions. [score:3]
In rice, miR159 was predicted to target several genes, such as MYBs, and other genes (Additional file  2). [score:3]
It also suggests that a complex cross-talk between rice miR159 and its downstream targets may exist, whose details should be studied further. [score:3]
Functional studies of loss-of-function mutants of miR159 were done in Arabidopsis or other plants through genetic mutants or artificial target mimics. [score:3]
Consistent with that, transcripts levels of the two miR159 targets, OsGAMYB and OsGAMYBL1, were much higher in STTM159 than those in wild type according to our RNA-seq data and results of qRT-PCR (Additional file  2, Fig.   2b-c). [score:3]
In contrast, rice plants overexpressing miR159, showed a severe defect in elongation of the top internode and the panicles developed malformed flowers within the leaf sheaths. [score:3]
miR159 targets MYB transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana [19], predominantly AtMYB33 and AtMYB65 [20]. [score:3]
Consistent with this, over expression of wheat miR159 in rice induced male sterility and reduced seed setting rate [31]. [score:3]
In addition, other obvious changes resulting from suppression of miR159 were the grain size and weight (Fig.   4a, b). [score:3]
Overall, these results suggest that suppression of rice miR159 affected multiple agronomic traits, significantly. [score:3]
It will be interesting to see if manipulation of other miR159-targets could affect agronomic traits as well. [score:3]
Thirdly, some unknown miR159 target genes might contribute to the phenotype of STTM159 plants. [score:3]
Our study first describes altered agronomic traits of rice under decreased expression of miR159 achieved by STTM technology. [score:3]
Expression of miR159 is abundant and widespread in all plant parts. [score:3]
miR159 was suppressed effectively in STTM transgenic plants. [score:3]
The present study indicates that miR159 positively regulates organ size, including stem, leaf, and grain size in rice by promoting cell division. [score:2]
Rice miR159 Agronomic traits Cell cycle Plant hormone Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are 20–24 nucleotides (nt) long and wi dely exist as gene regulators. [score:2]
Therefore, specific roles of miR159 in rice could be explored by down regulating miR159 through STTM. [score:2]
Our data suggests that in rice, miR159 positively regulates organ size, including stem, leaf, and grain size due to the promotion of cell division. [score:2]
The miR159 family is one of the most ancient and conserved miRNA families among monocot and dicot plants. [score:1]
All the experiments were performed taking three biological replicates and values are the means ± SD miR159 is a conserved miRNA among plant species. [score:1]
It has been reported that miR159a might be the dominant locus for the production of miR159 [28]. [score:1]
Studies on miR159 are mostly done on mo del plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. [score:1]
In miRBase, Osa-miR159 is a conserved miRNA family, and shared conserved 18 nucleotides, from 2 to 19, in rice (Fig.   1a). [score:1]
The miR159– MYB101 network in Arabidopsis thaliana may be important for the modulation of vegetative growth [23]. [score:1]
mir159a,b double mutant has pleiotropic morphological defects, including altered growth habits, curled leaves, small siliques and seeds; and these phenotypes could be reversed if MYB33 was also mutated in the miR159a,b double mutant background. [score:1]
All the experiments were performed taking three biological replicates and values are the means ± SD In miRBase, Osa-miR159 is a conserved miRNA family, and shared conserved 18 nucleotides, from 2 to 19, in rice (Fig.   1a). [score:1]
Rice genome has at least six putative transcriptional units for miR159 precursors according to miRBase 21 (http://www. [score:1]
Our results indicate that down regulation of miR159 results in reduced stature, shorter leaf, panicle length and smaller seeds compared to wild type. [score:1]
miR159 is a conserved miRNA among different plant species and has various functions in plants. [score:1]
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3
[+] score: 157
We found that miR159 targets affected anther and petal development even when miR319 targets were suppressed in jaw-D plants (Figure 4C), indicating that MYBs and TCPs work in parallel to trigger miR167 -mediated ARF6/8 regulation. [score:9]
MiR159 and miR319 dampen the expression of their TF targets, which can otherwise lead to miR167 misexpression both individually and cooperatively through engaging in common protein complexes. [score:7]
MiR159 and miR319 regulate directly interacting targets, which in turn control the expression of MIR167 family members during this process. [score:7]
MiR159- and miR319 -dependent ARF6/8 function contributes to later aspects of development by promoting JA synthesis in sepals through the induction of LOX2 expression and in petals and anthers through the regulation of DAD1 expression [2]. [score:7]
Differential regulation of MIR167 genes by miR159 and miR319 targetsThe divergent promoter activities of MIR167 family members are paralleled by their different abilities to downregulate ARF6/8, both of which indicate subfunctionalization [1]. [score:7]
Since TFs that regulate the same gene often form higher-order heteromeric complexes [41], we hypothesized that this might be the case for miR159-targetd MYBs and miR319 -targeted TCPs. [score:6]
While the expression of ProARF8:ARF8-GUS was altered in Pro35S:MIM159 and Pro35S:MIM319 plants, that of ProARF8: mARF8-GUS was not, indicating that miR159 and miR319 targets regulate ARF8 by increasing miR167 activity (Figure 3B). [score:6]
Flowers of Pro35S:MIM159 and Pro35S:MIM319 transgenic plants, in which miR159 and miR319 activities are impaired by constitutive expression of target mimics (Figure S1), have defects reminiscent of those found in plants with reduced ARF6/8 activity [5]. [score:5]
We also analyzed Pro35S:MIR167C plants deficient in ARF6/8 function, to address whether altered reporter expression was a direct consequence of the absence of miR159 and miR319, or a downstream consequence of disrupting development by reducing ARF6/8 levels. [score:5]
Simultaneous sequestration of both miR159 and miR319 resulted in additive phenotypic and molecular effects (Figure 4A, 4B, 4D), suggesting that the miR159- and miR319-regulated MYB and TCP transcription factors regulate shared target genes. [score:5]
Figure S1Expression levels of representative miR159 and miR319 targets in plants with specific miRNA attenuated function. [score:5]
Since petals and stamens were particularly sensitive to depletion of miR159 and miR319, we investigated the specific functions of two of their main targets, MYB33 and TCP4 [16], [17], [19], [20], [25], by expressing miRNA-non-targetable versions (mMYB33 and mTCP4) under the control of the petal- and stamen-specific APETALA3 (AP3) promoter [26]. [score:5]
In addition to regulation by miR159 and miR319 targets, there is cross-regulation among MIR167 genes, one example being repression of MIR167C in stamen filaments by miR167a. [score:5]
These results showed that miR159, miR319, just like ARF6/8, were negative regulators of the expression of class I KNOX genes, thereby confining cytokinin -dependent meristematic activity. [score:4]
MiR159 levels are positively regulated by GA [15], and at least in rice, this is also true for miR319 expression [21]. [score:4]
In addition to epidermal defects, vascular development in stamen filaments appeared to be arrested at the procambium stage, since the expression of the procambial marker Q0990 [24] was expanded in plants with diminished miR159, miR319 and ARF6/8 activities (Figure 1C). [score:4]
Consistent with a role of miR159, miR167 and miR319 in JA regulation, LOX2 promoter activity was reduced in sepals of Pro35S:MIM319, Pro35S:MIM159 and Pro35S:MIR167c plants (Figure 2C), with ectopic activation at the base of Pro35S: MIM319 pedicels, where MIR319B is normally expressed (Figure 2C, Figure S4C). [score:4]
Second, we conclude that the convergent downstream effects of miR159 and miR319 are at least partially due to direct interaction of their MYB and TCP transcription factor targets. [score:4]
Differential regulation of MIR167 genes by miR159 and miR319 targets. [score:4]
Later on, miR159- and miR319 -dependent ARF6/8 activities control a checkpoint for a transition that requires inhibition of KNOXI genes, which in turn regulates auxin transport and GA signaling (Figure 7) [2], [7], [52], [53]. [score:4]
MiR159 and miR319 regulation enable ARF6/8 to play a central role in setting the cytokinin-auxin differentiation boundary by delimiting the expression of KNOXI genes. [score:4]
To determine whether miR159 and miR319 targets are likely to regulate ARF6/8 directly or through miR167, we compared the response of ProARF8: ARF8-GUS and its miRNA insensitive form, ProARF8: mARF8-GUS, to changes in miR159 and miR319 activity (Figure 3B). [score:4]
The expression pattern of miR167a in ovaries, which was unaffected by changes in miR159 and miR319, resembled its promoter activity as well (Figure 5B, 5C) [1], [42]. [score:3]
Interaction of miR159 and miR319 targets. [score:3]
Auxin action, mediated by ARF5/MP and ARF6/8, also promotes cambium development [4], [55], [56], and we propose that progression of vascular development which appears to follow a similar sequence of signaling events as floral organ maturation (Figure 7) [36], [57], is mediated by the miR159-miR167-miR319 network as well. [score:3]
These results point to miR159 and miR319 as coordinating the expression pattern of MIR167 family members in petals, sepals and stamen. [score:3]
In addition, we found that the expression of the ProARF8:ARF8-GUS reporter was specifically absent from stamens when miR159 and miR319 activities were reduced (Figure 3B). [score:3]
miR159- and miR319 -dependent expression of miR167 in inflorescences. [score:3]
We next assayed ARF6/8 expression in Pro35S:MIM159 and Pro35S:MIM319 plants in order to determine how ARF6/8 are regulated by miR159 and miR319. [score:3]
First, we have discovered that the miR159-MYB and miR319-TCP nodes can independently regulate the miR167-ARF node. [score:2]
miR167 -dependent regulation of ARF6/8 by miR159 and miR319. [score:2]
Petal and anther development are particularly sensitive to perturbations in the miR159-miR167-miR319 network. [score:2]
As similar developmental defects were found in plants deficient in miR159 and miR319 activity, we asked whether their absence was also affecting the sequence of hormone-related events leading to flower maturation. [score:2]
Increased KNOXI activity might also explain the abnormal angle of petiole growth in mutants affected in ARF6/8, miR159 and miR319 activities. [score:1]
These results placed miR159 and miR319 upstream of miR167. [score:1]
Effects of miR159, miR167, and miR319 on flower morphology. [score:1]
To better understand miR159- and miR319 -dependent regulation of MIR167 genes, we assayed the transcriptional activity of MIR167A, MIR167B and MIR167C in Pro35S:MIM159 and Pro35S:MIM319 plants. [score:1]
Taken together, the phenotypic and physiological resemblance of plants with a reduction in ARF6/8 or miR159/miR319 activities supports links between miR167, miR159 and miR319 in growth and hormone -dependent maturation of sepals, petals and anthers. [score:1]
Mediation of miR159 and miR319 effects by miR167. [score:1]
We therefore compared in detail the consequences of reducing ARF6/8, miR159 and miR319 function during reproductive development. [score:1]
Together, these results suggested that the effects of miR159 and miR319 are mainly mediated by MIR167A. [score:1]
miR159 -mediated restriction of MYB33 and MYB65 activity to anthers is necessary for normal floral organ growth and fertility [16], [19], [20]. [score:1]
The miR159-miR167-miR319 circuit acts in sepals, petals and anthers to modulate the activity of ARF6/8, which control a large number of floral genes [4]. [score:1]
Figure S4Effect of miR159, miR167 and miR319 on MIR167A promoter activity, and comparison of MIR167A and MIR319B promoter activities. [score:1]
Defects seen in arf6/8 mutant flowers are reminiscent of ones observed when the function of two other miRNAs, miR159 and miR319, is compromised. [score:1]
Floral defects caused by altered miR159, miR167, and miR319 activities. [score:1]
[1 to 20 of 46 sentences]
4
[+] score: 65
In line with previous findings on stress-regulated miRNAs in Arabidopsis and rice [17, 34], the up-regulated expression of miR156 and miR159 may lead to the repression of their predicted target TFs which would lead to the activation of defense pathways in response to LPS perception. [score:9]
The sequencing analysis showed that in both callus and leaf tissues, various stress regulated-miRNAs were differentially expressed and real time PCR validated the expression profile of miR156, miR158, miR159, miR169, miR393, miR398, miR399 and miR408 along with their target genes. [score:8]
The H-T sequencing showed that the expression of miR159 was up-regulated in the treated callus tissue and without any expression change in the leaf tissue (Tables  1 and 2). [score:8]
In both callus and leaf tissues, four miRNAs (miR156, miR169, miR398 and miR408) were up-regulated, two miRNAs (miR158, and miR393) were down-regulated with two other miRNAs (miR159 and miR396) only found in the callus tissue (Figure  5A, B). [score:7]
In total about 86 targets genes were predicted among which most of them encode transcription factors (TFs) targeted by miR156, miR159, miR165, miR166, miR169, miR319, miR408, miR829, miR2934, miR5029 and miR5642. [score:5]
The expression data was then compared against the H-T sequencing data analysis which revealed that five (miR156, miR169, miR398, miR399 and miR408) of the nine miRNAs in callus tissue and six (miR158, miR159, miR169, miR393, miR396 and miR408) of the nine miRNAs in leaf tissue showed expression patterns that were similar to those observed with the H-T sequencing data. [score:4]
To validate the sequencing results with the bioinformatics -based analysis and based on their key function in gene regulation, the following mature miRNA were selected for expression profile analysis: miR156, mi158, miR159, miR169, miR393, miR396, miR398, miR399 and miR408. [score:4]
This was also the case in the leaf tissue for miR156, miR159, miR399 with their corresponding target genes; squamosa promoter -binding-like protein, Myb domain protein 101 and ubiquitin-protein ligase respectively. [score:3]
This observation led us to consider the expression profile of miR159 revealed by the H-T sequencing result rather than the one revealed by the qPCR. [score:3]
Furthermore, in the callus tissue, miR399 and three miRNAs in the leaf tissue (miR159, miR396 and miR399) were not differentially expressed between the untreated and treated samples. [score:3]
miR159 primarily regulate signal transduction and development of plants under various stress conditions [7]. [score:3]
Experimental studies in Arabidopsis and other plants have shown that abiotic and biotic stresses induce differential expression of a set of miRNAs such as: miR156, miR159, miR165, miR167, miR168, miR169, miR319, miR393, miR395, miR396, miR398, miR399, and miR402 [7, 18- 23]. [score:3]
are regulated by the identified miR156, miR159, miR165, miR166, miR169, miR319, miR408, miR829, miR2934, miR5029 and miR5642 (Tables  3 and 4). [score:2]
Consequently, miR159 mediates cleavage of Myb33 and Myb101 transcripts, which encode positive regulators of abscisic acid (ABA) responses. [score:2]
A previous study by Reyes and Chua [49] found miR159 also to be induced in Arabidopsis in response to infection with Pseudomonas syringae. [score:1]
[1 to 20 of 15 sentences]
5
[+] score: 44
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR159b, ath-MIR159c
Only microRNA159 (miR159) was found to inhibit DUO1 expression [12]. [score:5]
We showed [40] that Cajal bodies, which are processing centers for RNA-directed DNA Methylation (RdDM), were similarly developmentally variable during sperm formation miR159 plays a major role in restricting DUO1 expression in the vegetative cell. [score:5]
No positive element has been reported to regulate DUO1 expression but, in addition to the negative regulation mediated by miR159 [12], a putative repressive GRSF (Germline-Restrictive Silencing Factor) binding site was noted in the DUO1 promoter [32]. [score:5]
Since DUO1 is one of the targets of miR159 [12], we examined MIR159 expression in the arid1-1 mutant by qPCR, but found no change in miR159 levels (Figure S2B). [score:5]
We propose a mo del (Figure 7) to explain how DUO1 could be coordinately and sequentially regulated by the negative regulator miR159 and by the positive regulator ARID1. [score:4]
As pollen development proceeds, miR159 abundance is gradually decreased and ARID1 expands its expression into the generative cell, possibly by responding to the decreased repressive role of miR159 in bicellular pollen. [score:4]
Taken together, these results suggest that ARID1 might promote DUO1 expression directly, but independently, of miR159. [score:4]
In the vegetative cell, MIR159 is transcribed abundantly during the unicellular stage, and so might play a major role in blocking DUO1 expression. [score:3]
miR159 plays a major role in restricting DUO1 expression in the vegetative cell. [score:3]
Due to the absence of DUO1 accumulation in the vegetative nucleus of arid1-1, we hypothesize that unknown factors (other than ARID1 -associated histone modification machinery) might take over the major role of miR159 restricting DUO1 expression in the vegetative cell nucleus in the weak arid1-1 mutant (Figure 2). [score:3]
As pollen development proceeds, in spite of the gradually decreasing but still detectable repressive role of miR159 in bicellular pollen, ARID1, inherited from the microspore, partitions into the generative cell to bind to DUO1 and gradually promote DUO1 activation. [score:2]
miR159 is greatly reduced but not absent at the bicellular stage [8], but DUO1 is gradually activated from the early bicellular stage to the middle bicellular stage [9], indicating that DUO1 activation is not due only to the decrease of miR159 at the bicellular stage and that other factors are required for DUO1 activation during sperm cell formation. [score:1]
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6
[+] score: 34
Both vegetative and floral phenotypes reminiscent of MIM159 defects have been reported for plants that express non-targetable forms of miR159 target genes [29], and in plants doubly mutant for miR159a and miR159b [26]. [score:7]
In particular, upward curled leaves have been observed in plant expressing non-targetable forms of MYB33, which can be targeted both by miR159 and miR319 [43]. [score:7]
of a MIM159 fragment into the 3′ UTR silences a constitutively expressed 3xEYFP in the MIR159 expression domain (compare p35S:3xEYFP and p35S:3xEYFP-MIM159), which is revealed in the pMIR159:GUS lines. [score:5]
Conversely, some miRNA families have very similar sequences and overlapping in vivo targets (e. g., miR159/319, miR156/157 and miR170/171a), and artificial target mimics might not be able to unambiguously discriminate between different miRNAs. [score:5]
In analogy with EYFP:MIM159, reporter activity was increased in the tissues expressing MIR159 genes [26], as expected. [score:3]
In the remaining 20%, we detected EYFP signal that was strongly reduced in the region where MIR159 genes are known to be expressed (Figure 4A) [26]. [score:3]
MiR159 activity is also indirectly revealed by comparing the effect of expressing MIM159 in a genomic MYB33:GUS line. [score:3]
SPL2, SPL4, SPL5, SPL6, SPL9, SPL10, SPL11, SPL13, SPL15 MIM159 miR159 Reduced size and stature. [score:1]
[1 to 20 of 8 sentences]
7
[+] score: 26
NAC1 and At2g26950 expression levels were higher in DP/IDL than in the control which correlated with lower expression of miRNA164a and miR159a. [score:5]
The expressions of ath-miR164a, ath-miR159a, ath-miR171a and ath-miR5642a were down-regulated in both DP and IDL samples compared with the control (Fig.   4). [score:5]
And miR159 was reported to determine leaf structure by targeting MYB [55]. [score:3]
Of these differentially expressed miRNAs, 6 miRNAs (miR319a, 319c, miR159, miR164a, miR164c and miR390a) have been previously reported to be involved in dark -induced leaf senescence, and the remaining 38 miRNAs have not been implicated in leaf senescence before. [score:3]
Meantime, although the change tendency is similar, it has some difference between DP and IDL treatment, such as expression of miRNA159 in IDLs is more higher than that in DP samples, and so on (Fig.   6). [score:3]
Bioinformatics predictive analysis identified NAC1, At1g73440 (calmodulin-related protein), At2g03220 (galactoside 2-α-L-fucosyltransferase), At2g17640 (serine acetyltransferase), At2g26950 (MYB domain protein), At2g45160 (protein lost meristems 1), At28690 (putative protein kinase), At5g54810 (tryptophan synthase beta chain) as target genes of miR164a, miR5020c, miR158b, miR156j, miR159a, miR171a, miR156h and miR5642a, respectively. [score:3]
c- j Quantitative analysis of eight miRNAs levels by stem-loop real-time RT-PCR in IDL and DP -induced leaves c miR156j, d miR164a, e miR158b, f miR159a, g miR156h, h miR171a, i miR5020c j miR5642a. [score:1]
We selected eight miRNAs from these 44 miRNAs to confirm the microarray data using qRT-PCR (Fig.   4) (miR164a, miR5020c, miR158b, miR156j, miR159a, miR171a, miR156h and miR5642a). [score:1]
Of these, six have been previously identified as being involved in senescence: miR319a, 319c, miR-159a, miR164a, miR164c and miR390a [25, 35, 46, 48, 49, 53]. [score:1]
Moreover, miR-159a was found in leaf senescence of rice through genome-wide anlaysis of miRNAs [53]. [score:1]
[1 to 20 of 10 sentences]
8
[+] score: 25
While the expressions of 14 families (miR156/miR157, miR158, miR160, miR162, miR165/miR166, miR168, miR169, miR171, miR390, miR393, miR394, miR396, miR398, and miR399) were dramatically reduced, 3 families (miR159, miR167, and miR172) were up-regulated in CsCl -treated seedlings. [score:6]
First, similar to Fe -induced MIRNA genes, if some of MIRNA genes (miR159 and miR172) are dramatically up-regulated by a high concentration of Cs, then the final products, mature miRNAs, can be subsequently increased or maintained, irrespectively of processing retardation. [score:4]
A group of highly conserved miRNAs includes miR159, miR169, miR172, miR173, and miR394 are differentially expressed under Fe-deficiency and many miRNAs harbor IDE1/IDE2 motifs, Fe-deficiency responsive cis-acting elements, in their promoters [24]. [score:3]
The miR159 family contains 3 genes, the expression of which completely silences two GAMYB-like genes in the vegetative tissues. [score:3]
For instance, we speculated that the increased levels of miR159, miR164, and miR172 should lead to a decrease in the target mRNAs, MYB33, CUC1, and AP2, respectively. [score:3]
On the other hand, the expressions of two miRNA gene families, miR159 and miR172, were dramatically increased in stress -treated seedlings. [score:3]
However, the dramatic accumulations of pri-miR159a (~ 4.5-fold), pri-miR164a (~3-fold), and pri-miR172a (~2.5-fold) were proportional to the levels of mature miR159 (~ 2-fold), miR164 (~ 1.6-fold) and miR172 (~ 2-fold) present. [score:1]
The reason for the simultaneous accumulation of precursors and mature miRNAs (miR159 and miR172) remains unclear. [score:1]
In the case of KCl treatment, the miRNA counts of 4 families (miR156/miR157, miR169, miR394, and miR399) were reduced, whereas 9 families (miR159, miR164, miR165/miR166. [score:1]
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[+] score: 25
The major proportion of the identified microRNAs target transcription factors, with 63 reads (16%) for miR156/157 (targeting SPL family), 38 reads (9.6%) for miR172 (targeting AP2 family) and 26 reads (6.6%) for miR159 (targeting MYB/TCP family). [score:9]
Given the presence of miRs targeting transcription factor families such as SPL (miR156/miR157), MYB/TCP (miR159, miR319), ARF (miR160, miR167), AP2 (miR172), and GRF (miR396) there can be no doubt that miRs modulate the expression of many transcription factors during later stages of pollen development. [score:6]
It is possible that miR159 is not expressed until after pollen mitosis II in the bicellular pollen of tobacco, when its targets such as DUO1 have completed their developmental function [43]. [score:6]
Our data indicate that 3 microRNAs, miR159, miR165, miR171b,c are enriched in the sporophyte while the remaining 14 microRNAs were pollen enriched. [score:1]
Of the conserved microRNAs tested that were known to be present in A. thaliana pollen, only miR159 could not be amplified - although miR159 transcripts were amplified in a flower bud control. [score:1]
Overall there are few significant differences between quantitative RT-PCR and sequencing, and the major differences concern the relative abundance of miR159, which is over-estimated, and miR403, miR845 and miR162 which are under-estimated by sequencing. [score:1]
All miRNAs detectable in A. thaliana tricellular pollen could also be detected in N. tabacum mature pollen - with the exception of miR159. [score:1]
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10
[+] score: 23
In conclusion, an artificial pi-miR1918 was generated by PCR using the precursor of A. thaliana pre-miR159a as the backbone, and tomato plants that overexpressed this artificial pi-miR1918 displayed more serious disease symptoms than WT plants after infection with P. infestans. [score:5]
As previous studies have shown that miR159 (ath-miR159) is expressed at high levels in A. thaliana, the hairpin structure of ath-pre-miR159a was chosen as the backbone for the design of amiRNA. [score:3]
Construction of artificial P. infestans miR1918 vectorAs previous studies have shown that miR159 (ath-miR159) is expressed at high levels in A. thaliana, the hairpin structure of ath-pre-miR159a was chosen as the backbone for the design of amiRNA. [score:3]
Pi-miR1918 was derived from ath-miR159a* by a mutation within region 1 or from ath-miR159a by a mutation within region 2. The secondary structures of ath-pre-miR159a and pi-amiR1918 obtained with Mfold 3.5 were consistent each other (Fig. S1). [score:3]
Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was used to replace ath-miR159a and ath-miR159a* with pi-miR1918 and pi-miR1918*, respectively. [score:2]
Boxes represent ath-miR159a and ath-miR159a* mutation in pi-miR1918 and pi-miR1918*. [score:2]
In the first round of PCR, pMD-19T-ath-pre-miR159a, amiR1918-F and amiR1918-R were used to amplify a fragment containing miR1918. [score:1]
In the second round of PCR, pMD-19T-ath-pre-miR159a, amiR1918 [*]-F and amiR1918 [*]-R were used to amplify a fragment containing miR1918 [*]. [score:1]
AmiR1918 was generated by PCR, which involved amplification and mutagenesis using the precursor of ath-pre-miR159a as the backbone 21 49. [score:1]
Overall, the data suggested that pi-amiR1918 was successfully constructed by using ath-pre-miR159a as the backbone. [score:1]
In addition, sequence alignment between ath-pre-miR159a and pi-amiR1918 showed that both sequences were conserved except for two regions of 21-nt, marked as region 1 and region 2 in Fig. 2c. [score:1]
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[+] score: 22
The tae-miR159 overexpression rice lines and Arabidopsis myb33myb65 double mutants are more sensitive to heat stress relative to the wild-types, indicating that the down-regulation of miR159 and up-regulation of its targets after heat stress might participate in a heat stress-related signaling pathway and contribute to heat stress tolerance (Wang et al., 2012b). [score:11]
miR159 has been found to be down-regulated by heat in Arabidopsis (Zhong et al., 2013), wheat (Triticum aestivum; Wang et al., 2012b; Kumar et al., 2014) and cassava (Manihot esculenta; Ballen-Taborda et al., 2013). [score:4]
The main targets of miR159 are MYB transcription factors. [score:3]
As listed in Table 2, most of the conserved heat-responsive miRNAs are differently regulated in various species, except for miR159, 166 and 472 families. [score:2]
Tae-miR159 has been demonstrated to direct the cleavage of TaGAMYB1 and TaGAMYB2 (Wang et al., 2012b). [score:2]
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[+] score: 21
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR156a, ath-MIR156b, ath-MIR156c, ath-MIR156d, ath-MIR156e, ath-MIR156f, ath-MIR160a, ath-MIR160b, ath-MIR160c, ath-MIR164a, ath-MIR164b, ath-MIR166a, ath-MIR166b, ath-MIR166c, ath-MIR166d, ath-MIR166e, ath-MIR166f, ath-MIR166g, ath-MIR167a, ath-MIR167b, ath-MIR168a, ath-MIR168b, ath-MIR171a, ath-MIR172a, ath-MIR172b, ath-MIR159b, ath-MIR319a, osa-MIR156a, osa-MIR156b, osa-MIR156c, osa-MIR156d, osa-MIR156e, osa-MIR156f, osa-MIR156g, osa-MIR156h, osa-MIR156i, osa-MIR156j, osa-MIR160a, osa-MIR160b, osa-MIR160c, osa-MIR160d, osa-MIR164a, osa-MIR164b, osa-MIR166a, osa-MIR166b, osa-MIR166c, osa-MIR166d, osa-MIR166e, osa-MIR166f, osa-MIR167a, osa-MIR167b, osa-MIR167c, osa-MIR171a, ath-MIR167d, ath-MIR172c, ath-MIR172d, ath-MIR393a, ath-MIR393b, ath-MIR396a, ath-MIR396b, ath-MIR398a, osa-MIR393a, osa-MIR396a, osa-MIR396b, osa-MIR396c, osa-MIR398a, ath-MIR156g, ath-MIR156h, ath-MIR159c, ath-MIR164c, ath-MIR167c, ath-MIR172e, osa-MIR156k, osa-MIR156l, osa-MIR159a, osa-MIR159b, osa-MIR159c, osa-MIR159d, osa-MIR159e, osa-MIR159f, osa-MIR319a, osa-MIR160e, osa-MIR160f, osa-MIR164c, osa-MIR166k, osa-MIR166l, osa-MIR167d, osa-MIR167e, osa-MIR167f, osa-MIR167g, osa-MIR167h, osa-MIR167i, osa-MIR168a, osa-MIR168b, osa-MIR172a, osa-MIR172b, osa-MIR172c, osa-MIR166g, osa-MIR166h, osa-MIR166i, osa-MIR393b, osa-MIR172d, osa-MIR167j, osa-MIR166m, osa-MIR166j, osa-MIR437, osa-MIR396e, osa-MIR444a, osa-MIR528, osa-MIR531a, osa-MIR1425, osa-MIR444b, osa-MIR444c, osa-MIR444d, osa-MIR444e, osa-MIR444f, osa-MIR531b, osa-MIR1862a, osa-MIR1862b, osa-MIR1862c, osa-MIR1873, osa-MIR1862d, osa-MIR1862e, osa-MIR396f, osa-MIR396g, osa-MIR396h, osa-MIR396d, osa-MIR1862f, osa-MIR1862g, ath-MIR5021, osa-MIR5072, osa-MIR5077, ath-MIR156i, ath-MIR156j, osa-MIR531c
In tomato, miR159 regulates leaf and flower development by targeting the SGN-U567133 [58]. [score:5]
miR159 family members were reported to regulate ABA stress response and seed germination in plants by regulating the level of MYB transcription factor in A. thaliana [56, 57]. [score:3]
As the sample was collected during the active plant growth period, high abundance of miR159 suggests its active regulation of leaf and root development. [score:3]
Out of all, on the basis of bioinformatic analysis maximum expression was observed for miR159 family i. e. 315,441 reads followed by miR166 and miR167 family with 56,445 and 25,592 reads respectively and 17 miRNA families were reported to have less than 10 reads. [score:3]
On the basis of data analysis, it can be predicted that miR159 and miR166 have maximum expression in leaf during the period of its active growth. [score:3]
5, miR894.6, miR9662a-3p, miR159.12, miR172c, miR167g-5p, miR167g. [score:1]
miR166 family with 56 member followed by miR159 (52 members) family were found to have maximum number of members in the library, although 14 miRNA families such as miR393, miR444, miR473, miR531, miR1425, miR1862, miR1873, miR3623, miR3634, miR5072, miR5077, miR7486, miR9662, and miR9674 were found to have only one member. [score:1]
miR159 represents one of the most ancient miRNAs in the plant kingdom [52]. [score:1]
3, miR528.7, miR159.10, miR319e. [score:1]
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[+] score: 17
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR162a, ath-MIR162b, ath-MIR166a, ath-MIR166b, ath-MIR166c, ath-MIR166d, ath-MIR166e, ath-MIR166f, ath-MIR166g, ath-MIR169a, ath-MIR171a, ath-MIR159b, ath-MIR319a, ath-MIR319b, osa-MIR162a, osa-MIR166a, osa-MIR166b, osa-MIR166c, osa-MIR166d, osa-MIR166e, osa-MIR166f, osa-MIR169a, osa-MIR171a, ath-MIR169b, ath-MIR169c, ath-MIR169d, ath-MIR169e, ath-MIR169f, ath-MIR169g, ath-MIR169h, ath-MIR169i, ath-MIR169j, ath-MIR169k, ath-MIR169l, ath-MIR169m, ath-MIR169n, ath-MIR171b, ath-MIR171c, ath-MIR390a, ath-MIR390b, ath-MIR396a, ath-MIR396b, ath-MIR398a, ath-MIR398b, ath-MIR398c, ath-MIR399a, ath-MIR399b, ath-MIR399c, ath-MIR399d, ath-MIR399e, ath-MIR399f, osa-MIR396a, osa-MIR396b, osa-MIR396c, osa-MIR398a, osa-MIR398b, osa-MIR399a, osa-MIR399b, osa-MIR399c, osa-MIR399d, osa-MIR399e, osa-MIR399f, osa-MIR399g, osa-MIR399h, osa-MIR399i, osa-MIR399j, osa-MIR399k, ath-MIR408, ath-MIR159c, ath-MIR319c, osa-MIR156k, osa-MIR159a, osa-MIR159b, osa-MIR159c, osa-MIR159d, osa-MIR159e, osa-MIR159f, osa-MIR319a, osa-MIR319b, osa-MIR162b, osa-MIR166k, osa-MIR166l, osa-MIR169b, osa-MIR169c, osa-MIR169d, osa-MIR169e, osa-MIR169f, osa-MIR169g, osa-MIR169h, osa-MIR169i, osa-MIR169j, osa-MIR169k, osa-MIR169l, osa-MIR169m, osa-MIR169n, osa-MIR169o, osa-MIR169p, osa-MIR169q, osa-MIR171b, osa-MIR171c, osa-MIR171d, osa-MIR171e, osa-MIR171f, osa-MIR171g, osa-MIR166g, osa-MIR166h, osa-MIR166i, osa-MIR171h, osa-MIR408, osa-MIR171i, osa-MIR166m, osa-MIR166j, ath-MIR414, osa-MIR414, osa-MIR390, osa-MIR396e, ptc-MIR156k, ptc-MIR159a, ptc-MIR159b, ptc-MIR159d, ptc-MIR159e, ptc-MIR159c, ptc-MIR162a, ptc-MIR162b, ptc-MIR166a, ptc-MIR166b, ptc-MIR166c, ptc-MIR166d, ptc-MIR166e, ptc-MIR166f, ptc-MIR166g, ptc-MIR166h, ptc-MIR166i, ptc-MIR166j, ptc-MIR166k, ptc-MIR166l, ptc-MIR166m, ptc-MIR166n, ptc-MIR166o, ptc-MIR166p, ptc-MIR166q, ptc-MIR169a, ptc-MIR169aa, ptc-MIR169ab, ptc-MIR169ac, ptc-MIR169ad, ptc-MIR169ae, ptc-MIR169af, ptc-MIR169b, ptc-MIR169c, ptc-MIR169d, ptc-MIR169e, ptc-MIR169f, ptc-MIR169g, ptc-MIR169h, ptc-MIR169i, ptc-MIR169j, ptc-MIR169k, ptc-MIR169l, ptc-MIR169m, ptc-MIR169n, ptc-MIR169o, ptc-MIR169p, ptc-MIR169q, ptc-MIR169r, ptc-MIR169s, ptc-MIR169t, ptc-MIR169u, ptc-MIR169v, ptc-MIR169w, ptc-MIR169x, ptc-MIR169y, ptc-MIR169z, ptc-MIR171a, ptc-MIR171b, ptc-MIR171c, ptc-MIR171d, ptc-MIR171e, ptc-MIR171f, ptc-MIR171g, ptc-MIR171h, ptc-MIR171i, ptc-MIR319a, ptc-MIR319b, ptc-MIR319c, ptc-MIR319d, ptc-MIR319e, ptc-MIR319f, ptc-MIR319g, ptc-MIR319h, ptc-MIR319i, ptc-MIR390a, ptc-MIR390b, ptc-MIR390c, ptc-MIR390d, ptc-MIR396a, ptc-MIR396b, ptc-MIR396c, ptc-MIR396d, ptc-MIR396e, ptc-MIR396f, ptc-MIR396g, ptc-MIR398a, ptc-MIR398b, ptc-MIR398c, ptc-MIR399a, ptc-MIR399b, ptc-MIR399d, ptc-MIR399f, ptc-MIR399g, ptc-MIR399h, ptc-MIR399i, ptc-MIR399j, ptc-MIR399c, ptc-MIR399e, ptc-MIR408, ptc-MIR482a, ptc-MIR171k, osa-MIR169r, ptc-MIR171l, ptc-MIR171m, ptc-MIR171j, ptc-MIR1448, osa-MIR396f, osa-MIR2118a, osa-MIR2118b, osa-MIR2118c, osa-MIR2118d, osa-MIR2118e, osa-MIR2118f, osa-MIR2118g, osa-MIR2118h, osa-MIR2118i, osa-MIR2118j, osa-MIR2118k, osa-MIR2118l, osa-MIR2118m, osa-MIR2118n, osa-MIR2118o, osa-MIR2118p, osa-MIR2118q, osa-MIR2118r, osa-MIR396g, osa-MIR396h, osa-MIR396d, ptc-MIR482d, ptc-MIR169ag, ptc-MIR482b, ptc-MIR482c, pde-MIR159, pde-MIR162, pde-MIR166a, pde-MIR166b, pde-MIR169, pde-MIR171, pde-MIR390, pde-MIR396, pde-MIR482a, pde-MIR482b, pde-MIR482c, pde-MIR482d, pde-MIR946, pde-MIR947, pde-MIR949a, pde-MIR950, pde-MIR951, pde-MIR952a, pde-MIR952b, pde-MIR952c, pde-MIR1311, pde-MIR1312, pde-MIR1313, pde-MIR1314, pde-MIR3701, pde-MIR3704a, pde-MIR3704b, pde-MIR3712
In order to obtain solid evidence to support the existence and expression of conserved miRNAs in P. densata, we examined the expression profiles of 10 mature miRNAs (pde-miR159a, pde-miR166a, pde-miR171a, pde-miR390a, pde-miR396a, pde-miR946, pde-miR950, pde-miR1311, pde-miR1313 and pde-miR1314b) in needles and stems of two-month-old seedlings, using real-time RT-PCR (Figure 4). [score:5]
The expression levels of 7 miRNAs, including pde-miR159a, pde-miR166a, pde-miR390a, pde-miR946, pde-miR1311, pde-miR1313 and pde-miR1314b, were more than 2-fold higher in needles than in stems, Intriguingly, miR166a, an important miRNA known for the functions in establishment of adaxial/abaxial (dorsoventral) leaf polarity, was expressed more than 9 times higher in needles than in stems [40]. [score:5]
In our study, pde-miR159 and pde-miR166a were found highly expressed in P. densata needles. [score:3]
It includes pde-miR159a, pde-miR169a, pde-miR396a, pde-miR482c, pde-miR482d, pde-miR949a, pde-miR950a, pde-miR952a, pde-miR952b, pde-miR952c, pde-miR1313, pde-miR1314a, pde-miR1448, pde-miR2118a, pde-miR2118b, pde-miR3701, pde-miR3704a, pde-miR3704b and pde-miR3712 (Table 1), of which 17 miRNAs were further validated by subcloning and sequencing except pde-miR396a and pde-miR482c. [score:1]
For example, the pde-MIR482 family has 4 members, whereas only one exists in 19 miRNA families (pde-MIR159, pde-MIR162, pde-MIR169, pde-MIR171, pde-MIR390, pde-MIR396, pde-MIR783, pde-MIR946, pde-MIR947, pde-MIR950, pde-MIR951, pde-MIR1310, pde-MIR1311, pde-MIR1312, pde-MIR1313, pde-MIR1314, pde-MIR1448, pde-MIR3701 and pde-MIR3712). [score:1]
The accumulation of miR159 was observed to increase with the days post inoculation (dpi) of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) agroinfection in tomato cv Pusa Ruby [49]. [score:1]
It includes pde-MIR159, pde-MIR162, pde-MIR166, pde-MIR169, pde-MIR171, pde-MIR390, pde-MIR396 and pde-MIR399. [score:1]
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14
[+] score: 16
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR156a, ath-MIR156b, ath-MIR156c, ath-MIR156d, ath-MIR156e, ath-MIR156f, ath-MIR160a, ath-MIR160b, ath-MIR160c, ath-MIR162a, ath-MIR162b, ath-MIR164a, ath-MIR164b, ath-MIR166a, ath-MIR166b, ath-MIR166c, ath-MIR166d, ath-MIR166e, ath-MIR166f, ath-MIR166g, ath-MIR167a, ath-MIR167b, ath-MIR168a, ath-MIR168b, ath-MIR169a, ath-MIR172a, ath-MIR172b, ath-MIR159b, osa-MIR156a, osa-MIR156b, osa-MIR156c, osa-MIR156d, osa-MIR156e, osa-MIR156f, osa-MIR156g, osa-MIR156h, osa-MIR156i, osa-MIR156j, osa-MIR160a, osa-MIR160b, osa-MIR160c, osa-MIR160d, osa-MIR162a, osa-MIR164a, osa-MIR164b, osa-MIR166a, osa-MIR166b, osa-MIR166c, osa-MIR166d, osa-MIR166e, osa-MIR166f, osa-MIR167a, osa-MIR167b, osa-MIR167c, osa-MIR169a, ath-MIR167d, ath-MIR169b, ath-MIR169c, ath-MIR169d, ath-MIR169e, ath-MIR169f, ath-MIR169g, ath-MIR169h, ath-MIR169i, ath-MIR169j, ath-MIR169k, ath-MIR169l, ath-MIR169m, ath-MIR169n, ath-MIR172c, ath-MIR172d, ath-MIR395a, ath-MIR395b, ath-MIR395c, ath-MIR395d, ath-MIR395e, ath-MIR395f, ath-MIR396a, ath-MIR396b, ath-MIR399a, ath-MIR399b, ath-MIR399c, ath-MIR399d, ath-MIR399e, ath-MIR399f, osa-MIR395b, osa-MIR395d, osa-MIR395e, osa-MIR395g, osa-MIR395h, osa-MIR395i, osa-MIR395j, osa-MIR395k, osa-MIR395l, osa-MIR395s, osa-MIR395t, osa-MIR395c, osa-MIR395a, osa-MIR395f, osa-MIR395u, osa-MIR396a, osa-MIR396b, osa-MIR396c, osa-MIR399a, osa-MIR399b, osa-MIR399c, osa-MIR399d, osa-MIR399e, osa-MIR399f, osa-MIR399g, osa-MIR399h, osa-MIR399i, osa-MIR399j, osa-MIR399k, ath-MIR408, ath-MIR156g, ath-MIR156h, ath-MIR159c, ath-MIR164c, ath-MIR167c, ath-MIR172e, osa-MIR156k, osa-MIR156l, osa-MIR159a, osa-MIR159b, osa-MIR159c, osa-MIR159d, osa-MIR159e, osa-MIR159f, osa-MIR160e, osa-MIR160f, osa-MIR162b, osa-MIR164c, osa-MIR164d, osa-MIR164e, osa-MIR166k, osa-MIR166l, osa-MIR167d, osa-MIR167e, osa-MIR167f, osa-MIR167g, osa-MIR167h, osa-MIR167i, osa-MIR168a, osa-MIR168b, osa-MIR169b, osa-MIR169c, osa-MIR169d, osa-MIR169e, osa-MIR169f, osa-MIR169g, osa-MIR169h, osa-MIR169i, osa-MIR169j, osa-MIR169k, osa-MIR169l, osa-MIR169m, osa-MIR169n, osa-MIR169o, osa-MIR169p, osa-MIR169q, osa-MIR172a, osa-MIR172b, osa-MIR172c, osa-MIR166g, osa-MIR166h, osa-MIR166i, osa-MIR171h, osa-MIR408, osa-MIR172d, osa-MIR167j, osa-MIR166m, osa-MIR166j, osa-MIR164f, zma-MIR156d, zma-MIR156f, zma-MIR156g, zma-MIR156b, zma-MIR156c, zma-MIR156e, zma-MIR156a, zma-MIR156h, zma-MIR156i, zma-MIR160a, zma-MIR160c, zma-MIR160d, zma-MIR160b, zma-MIR164a, zma-MIR164d, zma-MIR164b, zma-MIR164c, zma-MIR169a, zma-MIR169b, zma-MIR167a, zma-MIR167b, zma-MIR167d, zma-MIR167c, zma-MIR160e, zma-MIR166a, zma-MIR162, zma-MIR166h, zma-MIR166e, zma-MIR166i, zma-MIR166f, zma-MIR166g, zma-MIR166b, zma-MIR166c, zma-MIR166d, zma-MIR172a, zma-MIR172d, zma-MIR172b, zma-MIR172c, osa-MIR396e, zma-MIR395b, zma-MIR395c, zma-MIR395a, zma-MIR396b, zma-MIR396a, zma-MIR399a, zma-MIR399c, zma-MIR399b, zma-MIR399d, zma-MIR399e, zma-MIR399f, zma-MIR156j, zma-MIR159a, zma-MIR159b, zma-MIR159c, zma-MIR159d, zma-MIR166k, zma-MIR166j, zma-MIR167e, zma-MIR167f, zma-MIR167g, zma-MIR167h, zma-MIR167i, zma-MIR168a, zma-MIR168b, zma-MIR169c, zma-MIR169f, zma-MIR169g, zma-MIR169h, zma-MIR169i, zma-MIR169k, zma-MIR169j, zma-MIR169d, zma-MIR169e, zma-MIR172e, zma-MIR166l, zma-MIR166m, zma-MIR171h, zma-MIR408a, zma-MIR156k, zma-MIR160f, osa-MIR529a, osa-MIR395m, osa-MIR395n, osa-MIR395o, osa-MIR395p, osa-MIR395q, osa-MIR395v, osa-MIR395w, osa-MIR395r, osa-MIR529b, osa-MIR169r, osa-MIR396f, zma-MIR396c, zma-MIR396d, osa-MIR2118a, osa-MIR2118b, osa-MIR2118c, osa-MIR2118d, osa-MIR2118e, osa-MIR2118f, osa-MIR2118g, osa-MIR2118h, osa-MIR2118i, osa-MIR2118j, osa-MIR2118k, osa-MIR2118l, osa-MIR2118m, osa-MIR2118n, osa-MIR2118o, osa-MIR2118p, osa-MIR2118q, osa-MIR2118r, osa-MIR2275a, osa-MIR2275b, zma-MIR2118a, zma-MIR2118b, zma-MIR2118c, zma-MIR2118d, zma-MIR2118e, zma-MIR2118f, zma-MIR2118g, zma-MIR2275a, zma-MIR2275b, zma-MIR2275c, zma-MIR2275d, osa-MIR396g, osa-MIR396h, osa-MIR396d, zma-MIR156l, zma-MIR159e, zma-MIR159f, zma-MIR159g, zma-MIR159h, zma-MIR159i, zma-MIR159j, zma-MIR159k, zma-MIR160g, zma-MIR164e, zma-MIR164f, zma-MIR164g, zma-MIR164h, zma-MIR166n, zma-MIR167j, zma-MIR169l, zma-MIR169m, zma-MIR169n, zma-MIR169o, zma-MIR169p, zma-MIR169q, zma-MIR169r, zma-MIR395d, zma-MIR395e, zma-MIR395f, zma-MIR395g, zma-MIR395h, zma-MIR395i, zma-MIR395j, zma-MIR395k, zma-MIR395l, zma-MIR395m, zma-MIR395n, zma-MIR395o, zma-MIR395p, zma-MIR396e, zma-MIR396f, zma-MIR396g, zma-MIR396h, zma-MIR399g, zma-MIR399h, zma-MIR399i, zma-MIR399j, zma-MIR408b, zma-MIR529, osa-MIR395x, osa-MIR395y, osa-MIR2275c, osa-MIR2275d, ath-MIR156i, ath-MIR156j
Interestingly, some target transcripts were regulated by pairs of miRNAs: both miR156 and miR529 targeted five members of the same SBP family, and the miR159/319 pair regulated three MYB domain transcription factors. [score:7]
Although most miRNA families appear to target a single class of targets, the miR159/319 family regulates both MYB and TCP transcription factors, which may control petal morphogenesis as previously reported [59]. [score:6]
The six most abundantly expressed miRNA families were miR166, miR168, miR167, miR156, miR159, and miRs6. [score:3]
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15
[+] score: 12
b Expression profiles of (i) miRNA159a and (ii) miRNA160a-5p and their targets genes, which have been shown to have a role in regulation during seed germination. [score:6]
For example, miR159, miR160 and their confirmed target genes that encode MYB and auxin responsive factor TFs (Fig.   6b(i), (ii)). [score:3]
These included miR159a, b and c, which are known to have a role in seed germination [4]. [score:1]
Both miR159 and miR160 have a functional role during seed germination via interactions with ABA [3– 5]. [score:1]
For example, miRNA159 and miRNA160 interact with ABA/GA signalling pathways during seed germination in Arabidopsis [19, 21]. [score:1]
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16
[+] score: 12
Genetic analysis reveals functional redundancy and the major target genes of the Arabidopsis miR159 family. [score:3]
Sequence and expression differences underlie functional specialization of Arabidopsis microRNAs miR159 and miR319. [score:3]
Evolution of MIR159/319 microRNA genes and their post-transcriptional regulatory link to siRNA pathways. [score:2]
It was shown that miR159 and 160 affect the process of germination by regulating ABA sensitivity. [score:2]
Others miRNAs affecting seed size belong to two families, miR159 and miR319 (Palatnik et al., 2007; Li et al., 2011). [score:1]
ABA induction of miR159 controls transcript levels of two MYB factors during Arabidopsis seed germination. [score:1]
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17
[+] score: 11
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR156a, ath-MIR156b, ath-MIR156c, ath-MIR156d, ath-MIR156e, ath-MIR156f, ath-MIR157a, ath-MIR157b, ath-MIR157c, ath-MIR157d, ath-MIR160a, ath-MIR160b, ath-MIR160c, ath-MIR165a, ath-MIR165b, ath-MIR166a, ath-MIR166b, ath-MIR166c, ath-MIR166d, ath-MIR166e, ath-MIR166f, ath-MIR166g, ath-MIR167a, ath-MIR167b, ath-MIR169a, ath-MIR172a, ath-MIR172b, ath-MIR159b, ath-MIR319a, ath-MIR319b, osa-MIR156a, osa-MIR156b, osa-MIR156c, osa-MIR156d, osa-MIR156e, osa-MIR156f, osa-MIR156g, osa-MIR156h, osa-MIR156i, osa-MIR156j, osa-MIR160a, osa-MIR160b, osa-MIR160c, osa-MIR160d, osa-MIR166a, osa-MIR166b, osa-MIR166c, osa-MIR166d, osa-MIR166e, osa-MIR166f, osa-MIR167a, osa-MIR167b, osa-MIR167c, osa-MIR169a, ath-MIR167d, ath-MIR169b, ath-MIR169c, ath-MIR169d, ath-MIR169e, ath-MIR169f, ath-MIR169g, ath-MIR169h, ath-MIR169i, ath-MIR169j, ath-MIR169k, ath-MIR169l, ath-MIR169m, ath-MIR169n, ath-MIR172c, ath-MIR172d, ath-MIR394a, ath-MIR394b, ath-MIR396a, ath-MIR396b, osa-MIR394, osa-MIR396a, osa-MIR396b, osa-MIR396c, ath-MIR403, ath-MIR408, ath-MIR156g, ath-MIR156h, ath-MIR159c, ath-MIR319c, ath-MIR167c, ath-MIR172e, osa-MIR156k, osa-MIR156l, osa-MIR159a, osa-MIR159b, osa-MIR159c, osa-MIR159d, osa-MIR159e, osa-MIR159f, osa-MIR319a, osa-MIR319b, osa-MIR160e, osa-MIR160f, osa-MIR166k, osa-MIR166l, osa-MIR167d, osa-MIR167e, osa-MIR167f, osa-MIR167g, osa-MIR167h, osa-MIR167i, osa-MIR169b, osa-MIR169c, osa-MIR169d, osa-MIR169e, osa-MIR169f, osa-MIR169g, osa-MIR169h, osa-MIR169i, osa-MIR169j, osa-MIR169k, osa-MIR169l, osa-MIR169m, osa-MIR169n, osa-MIR169o, osa-MIR169p, osa-MIR169q, osa-MIR172a, osa-MIR172b, osa-MIR172c, osa-MIR166g, osa-MIR166h, osa-MIR166i, osa-MIR408, osa-MIR172d, osa-MIR167j, osa-MIR166m, osa-MIR166j, ath-MIR414, osa-MIR414, osa-MIR396e, ath-MIR856, ath-MIR858a, osa-MIR169r, osa-MIR396f, ath-MIR2111a, ath-MIR2111b, osa-MIR396g, osa-MIR396h, osa-MIR396d, ath-MIR858b, ath-MIR156i, ath-MIR156j
Further mir159 and mir394 with highest abundance in stevia were among the moderately expressed miRNAs in Arachis hypogea[29] and among the lowly expressed miRNAs in C. trifoliate[30]. [score:5]
Among the 34 miRNA families, miR159 proved to be largest one with highest number of sequences. [score:1]
For example, the abundance of miR159 family varied from 6 reads to 11,759 reads in the deep sequencing. [score:1]
Most of the miRNA families were found to be conserved in a variety of plant species e. g. using a comparative genomics based strategy homologs of miR319, miR156/157, miR169, miR165/166, miR394 and miR159 were found in 51,45,41,40,40 and 30 diverse plant species respectively [38]. [score:1]
miR156, miR159, miR167, miR319, miR396 and miR172 possessed 5, 8, 10, 8, 7 and 6 members respectively whereas other miRNA families such as miR157, miR160, miR169, miR858, miR894, miR2111 etc. [score:1]
For e. g. - as miR159a showed 11,759 sequenced clones i. e. more than 10,000 times. [score:1]
Among the 34 miRNA families mir159 showed the largest number of sequenced clones which are in agreement as miR159 is also the most abundant family in Arabidopsis[16]. [score:1]
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18
[+] score: 11
To ensure that the effects of TM expression on plant phenotype could be distinguished from virus -induced symptoms in a solanaceous host we inoculated N. benthamiana plants with a mixture of in vitro-synthesized LS-CMV RNAs 1 and 2 with RNA3 modified to express a TM for miR159 (LS-MIM159) 19. [score:5]
Furthermore, the results suggest that interference with miR159 activity may have a role in the induction of disease by severe CMV strains in solanaceous hosts, similar to its role in the pathogenesis of a severe strain (Fny-CMV) in A. thaliana 19. [score:3]
The microRNA miR159 may play a role in disease symptom induction by Fny-CMV in the solanaceous host, Nicotiana benthamiana. [score:3]
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[+] score: 10
While miR319 can guide both types of targets to cleavage [17], miR159 can only affect the MYBs [16], [17], [19]. [score:3]
Sequence differences among related miRNAs could be important in plants as it has been shown for miR319 and miR159, which have very similar sequences but regulate different genes [17]. [score:2]
In Arabidopsis, the miR159/miR319 family of miRNAs comprises six small RNAs that share 17 out of their 21 nt and regulate transcription factors of the TCP and MYB classes [16], [17], [18], [19], [20]. [score:2]
This has been previously shown for the miRNAs miR319 and miR159, which are similar in sequence but still regulate different genes [16], [17], [18], [19]. [score:2]
While miR319 can guide TCP and MYB genes to cleavage, specific base differences prevent miR159 activity on the TCPs [17]. [score:1]
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[+] score: 9
miR159 regulates floral development, fertility and seed germination by targeting and negatively regulating MYB transcript level [16]; miR417 negatively regulate seed germination under salt stress condition and over expression of miR402 enhances the seed germination under stress conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana 17, 18. [score:9]
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[+] score: 8
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR171a, ath-MIR159b, ath-MIR171b, ath-MIR171c, ath-MIR159c
miR-159 was detected using an end-labeled DNA oligonucleotide AS-159 (5′-TAGAGCTCCCTTCAATCCAAA-3′). [score:1]
Accumulation of miR-171 and miR-159 was unaffected in the dcl2 and dcl3 mutants (see Figure 1B). [score:1]
This was in contrast to the low level or shifted mobility of miR-171 and miR-159 in dcl1-7 and hen1-1, respectively (see Figure 1B). [score:1]
This was in strict contrast to miR-171, miR-159 (see Figure 1B), and several other miRNAs tested (data not shown), which depended specifically on DCL1. [score:1]
From top to bottom: miR-171 and miR-159a loci; siRNA02 loci, with each siRNA02 sequence indicated by an asterisk and the inverted duplication shown by the gray arrows; cluster2 siRNA locus; a segment of chromosome III showing 10 5S rDNA repeats (blue indicates 5S rRNA, gray indicates spacer) containing the siRNA1003 sequence. [score:1]
To determine whether other DCL or RDR proteins are required for miRNA formation in Arabidopsis, miR-171 and miR-159 were analyzed in four new mutants. [score:1]
As shown for miR-171, miR-159 (Figure 1A), and several other miRNAs (Park et al. 2002; Reinhart et al. 2002), mutants with dcl1 loss-of-function alleles lose most of their miRNA populations (Figure 1B). [score:1]
Similarly, accumulation of miR-171 and miR-159 was unaffected in rdr1 and rdr2 mutants. [score:1]
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[+] score: 8
For example, analysis of the MIR156, MIR159, and MIR166 families revealed differences in the spatial and temporal expression of genes within these families, which suggests that expression diversification occurred after gene duplication [17]. [score:5]
First, northern blot analysis revealed that reductions in mature miRNA abundance were restricted to three (miR172, miR173, and miR159) of the examined miRNA species in both pwr alleles (Figure 4). [score:1]
The abundance of miR159, miR172, and miR173 (underlined) was reduced in both pwr alleles relative to their respective controls. [score:1]
1003218.g004 Figure 4miRNA abundance in pwr-1 and pwr-2. (A) Abundance of miR159, miR172, miR173, miR166, and miR390 in L er, pwr-1, Col, and pwr-2 detected by small RNA northern blotting. [score:1]
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[+] score: 7
Similarly, MYB101 (UniProt: Q8W1W5), a transcription factor that positively regulates the response to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) [37], is both a direct target of miR159 and a substrate of MPK4 (UniProt: Q39024). [score:5]
However, the remaining two miRNAs, miR159 and miR169, are part of a complex transcriptional regulatory network that includes several kinases, including multiple members of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and calcium dependent protein kinase (CDPK) families (Fig 5A). [score:2]
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[+] score: 7
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR168a, ath-MIR168b, ath-MIR159b, ath-MIR159c
These mutations inhibit both seed germination and root elongation in the presence of low levels of ABA, probably due to the misregulation of the miR159 targets MYB101 and MYB33 [32]. [score:7]
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[+] score: 7
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR156a, ath-MIR156b, ath-MIR156c, ath-MIR156d, ath-MIR156e, ath-MIR156f, ath-MIR157d, ath-MIR158a, ath-MIR160a, ath-MIR160b, ath-MIR160c, ath-MIR161, ath-MIR162a, ath-MIR162b, ath-MIR163, ath-MIR164a, ath-MIR164b, ath-MIR165a, ath-MIR165b, ath-MIR166a, ath-MIR166b, ath-MIR166c, ath-MIR166d, ath-MIR166e, ath-MIR166f, ath-MIR166g, ath-MIR167a, ath-MIR167b, ath-MIR169a, ath-MIR170, ath-MIR172a, ath-MIR172b, ath-MIR173, ath-MIR159b, ath-MIR319a, ath-MIR319b, ath-MIR167d, ath-MIR169b, ath-MIR169c, ath-MIR169d, ath-MIR169e, ath-MIR169f, ath-MIR169g, ath-MIR169h, ath-MIR169i, ath-MIR169j, ath-MIR169k, ath-MIR169l, ath-MIR169m, ath-MIR169n, ath-MIR171b, ath-MIR172c, ath-MIR172d, ath-MIR391, ath-MIR395a, ath-MIR395b, ath-MIR395c, ath-MIR395d, ath-MIR395e, ath-MIR395f, ath-MIR397a, ath-MIR397b, ath-MIR398a, ath-MIR398b, ath-MIR398c, ath-MIR399a, ath-MIR399b, ath-MIR399c, ath-MIR399d, ath-MIR399e, ath-MIR399f, ath-MIR400, ath-MIR408, ath-MIR156g, ath-MIR156h, ath-MIR158b, ath-MIR159c, ath-MIR319c, ath-MIR164c, ath-MIR167c, ath-MIR172e, ath-MIR447a, ath-MIR447b, ath-MIR447c, ath-MIR773a, ath-MIR775, ath-MIR822, ath-MIR823, ath-MIR826a, ath-MIR827, ath-MIR829, ath-MIR833a, ath-MIR837, ath-MIR841a, ath-MIR842, ath-MIR843, ath-MIR845a, ath-MIR848, ath-MIR852, ath-MIR824, ath-MIR854a, ath-MIR854b, ath-MIR854c, ath-MIR854d, ath-MIR857, ath-MIR864, ath-MIR2111a, ath-MIR2111b, ath-MIR773b, ath-MIR841b, ath-MIR854e, ath-MIR833b, ath-MIR156i, ath-MIR156j, ath-MIR826b
miR163, miR169b/c, miR170, miR391, miR447, miR843 and miR848 were specifically upregulated, whereas miR159, miR162, miR164a/b, miR165, miR169d–g, miR172c/d, miR173, miR319, miR773, and miR864-3p were specifically downregulated by –C conditions. [score:7]
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[+] score: 6
miR159 targets several MYB transcription factors, such as MYB33, MYB65 and MYB101, which interact with GA-response elements and control anther development and flowering time under short days [39, 40]. [score:4]
Disruption of the miR159 -mediated repression of MYB33 and MYB101 alters responses to ABA during seed germination [41]. [score:1]
ABA induction of miR159 controls transcript levels of two MYB factors during Arabidopsis seed germination. [score:1]
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[+] score: 6
Here it must be noted that Vaucheret et al. (2006) reported modest increases in the accumulation of mature miR159a and miR166 in transgenic plants over -expressing AtAGO1, the opposite result to what we observed. [score:3]
The five miRNA targets examined, AtAGO1 (miR168), DCL1 (miR162), PHABULOSA (PHB) (miR165/166), MYB33 (miR159), and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDONS 2 (CUC2) (miR164), all showed elevated un-cleaved mRNA abundances in ago1–27 plants relative to wild type (Figure 2B), consistent with what has previously been reported (Morel et al., 2002). [score:3]
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[+] score: 5
Overexpression of miR156 and miR159 resulted in late-flowering [21, 24], and overexpression of miR160 resulted in increased lateral rooting [25]. [score:5]
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29
[+] score: 5
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR156a, ath-MIR156b, ath-MIR156c, ath-MIR156d, ath-MIR156e, ath-MIR156f, ath-MIR160a, ath-MIR160b, ath-MIR160c, ath-MIR162a, ath-MIR162b, ath-MIR164a, ath-MIR164b, ath-MIR166a, ath-MIR166b, ath-MIR166c, ath-MIR166d, ath-MIR166e, ath-MIR166f, ath-MIR166g, ath-MIR167a, ath-MIR167b, ath-MIR169a, ath-MIR171a, ath-MIR172a, ath-MIR172b, ath-MIR159b, osa-MIR156a, osa-MIR156b, osa-MIR156c, osa-MIR156d, osa-MIR156e, osa-MIR156f, osa-MIR156g, osa-MIR156h, osa-MIR156i, osa-MIR156j, osa-MIR160a, osa-MIR160b, osa-MIR160c, osa-MIR160d, osa-MIR162a, osa-MIR164a, osa-MIR164b, osa-MIR166a, osa-MIR166b, osa-MIR166c, osa-MIR166d, osa-MIR166e, osa-MIR166f, osa-MIR167a, osa-MIR167b, osa-MIR167c, osa-MIR169a, osa-MIR171a, ath-MIR167d, ath-MIR169b, ath-MIR169c, ath-MIR169d, ath-MIR169e, ath-MIR169f, ath-MIR169g, ath-MIR169h, ath-MIR169i, ath-MIR169j, ath-MIR169k, ath-MIR169l, ath-MIR169m, ath-MIR169n, ath-MIR171b, ath-MIR171c, ath-MIR172c, ath-MIR172d, ath-MIR393a, ath-MIR393b, ath-MIR394a, ath-MIR394b, ath-MIR395a, ath-MIR395b, ath-MIR395c, ath-MIR395d, ath-MIR395e, ath-MIR395f, osa-MIR393a, osa-MIR394, osa-MIR395b, osa-MIR395d, osa-MIR395e, osa-MIR395g, osa-MIR395h, osa-MIR395i, osa-MIR395j, osa-MIR395k, osa-MIR395l, osa-MIR395s, osa-MIR395t, osa-MIR395c, osa-MIR395a, osa-MIR395f, osa-MIR395u, ath-MIR156g, ath-MIR156h, ath-MIR159c, ath-MIR164c, ath-MIR167c, ath-MIR172e, osa-MIR156k, osa-MIR156l, osa-MIR159a, osa-MIR159b, osa-MIR159c, osa-MIR159d, osa-MIR159e, osa-MIR159f, osa-MIR160e, osa-MIR160f, osa-MIR162b, osa-MIR164c, osa-MIR164d, osa-MIR164e, osa-MIR166k, osa-MIR166l, osa-MIR167d, osa-MIR167e, osa-MIR167f, osa-MIR167g, osa-MIR167h, osa-MIR167i, osa-MIR169b, osa-MIR169c, osa-MIR169d, osa-MIR169e, osa-MIR169f, osa-MIR169g, osa-MIR169h, osa-MIR169i, osa-MIR169j, osa-MIR169k, osa-MIR169l, osa-MIR169m, osa-MIR169n, osa-MIR169o, osa-MIR169p, osa-MIR169q, osa-MIR171b, osa-MIR171c, osa-MIR171d, osa-MIR171e, osa-MIR171f, osa-MIR171g, osa-MIR172a, osa-MIR172b, osa-MIR172c, osa-MIR166g, osa-MIR166h, osa-MIR166i, osa-MIR171h, osa-MIR393b, osa-MIR172d, osa-MIR171i, osa-MIR167j, osa-MIR166m, osa-MIR166j, osa-MIR164f, zma-MIR156d, zma-MIR156f, zma-MIR156g, zma-MIR156b, zma-MIR156c, zma-MIR156e, zma-MIR156a, zma-MIR156h, zma-MIR156i, zma-MIR160a, zma-MIR160c, zma-MIR160d, zma-MIR160b, zma-MIR164a, zma-MIR164d, zma-MIR164b, zma-MIR164c, zma-MIR169a, zma-MIR169b, zma-MIR167a, zma-MIR167b, zma-MIR167d, zma-MIR167c, zma-MIR160e, zma-MIR166a, zma-MIR162, zma-MIR166h, zma-MIR166e, zma-MIR166i, zma-MIR166f, zma-MIR166g, zma-MIR166b, zma-MIR166c, zma-MIR166d, zma-MIR171a, zma-MIR171b, zma-MIR172a, zma-MIR172d, zma-MIR172b, zma-MIR172c, zma-MIR171d, zma-MIR171f, zma-MIR394a, zma-MIR394b, zma-MIR395b, zma-MIR395c, zma-MIR395a, zma-MIR156j, zma-MIR159a, zma-MIR159b, zma-MIR159c, zma-MIR159d, zma-MIR166k, zma-MIR166j, zma-MIR167e, zma-MIR167f, zma-MIR167g, zma-MIR167h, zma-MIR167i, zma-MIR169c, zma-MIR169f, zma-MIR169g, zma-MIR169h, zma-MIR169i, zma-MIR169k, zma-MIR169j, zma-MIR169d, zma-MIR169e, zma-MIR171c, zma-MIR171j, zma-MIR171e, zma-MIR171i, zma-MIR171g, zma-MIR172e, zma-MIR166l, zma-MIR166m, zma-MIR171k, zma-MIR171h, zma-MIR393a, zma-MIR156k, zma-MIR160f, osa-MIR528, osa-MIR529a, osa-MIR395m, osa-MIR395n, osa-MIR395o, osa-MIR395p, osa-MIR395q, osa-MIR395v, osa-MIR395w, osa-MIR395r, ath-MIR827, osa-MIR529b, osa-MIR1432, osa-MIR169r, osa-MIR827, osa-MIR2118a, osa-MIR2118b, osa-MIR2118c, osa-MIR2118d, osa-MIR2118e, osa-MIR2118f, osa-MIR2118g, osa-MIR2118h, osa-MIR2118i, osa-MIR2118j, osa-MIR2118k, osa-MIR2118l, osa-MIR2118m, osa-MIR2118n, osa-MIR2118o, osa-MIR2118p, osa-MIR2118q, osa-MIR2118r, osa-MIR2275a, osa-MIR2275b, zma-MIR2118a, zma-MIR2118b, zma-MIR2118c, zma-MIR2118d, zma-MIR2118e, zma-MIR2118f, zma-MIR2118g, zma-MIR2275a, zma-MIR2275b, zma-MIR2275c, zma-MIR2275d, zma-MIR156l, zma-MIR159e, zma-MIR159f, zma-MIR159g, zma-MIR159h, zma-MIR159i, zma-MIR159j, zma-MIR159k, zma-MIR160g, zma-MIR164e, zma-MIR164f, zma-MIR164g, zma-MIR164h, zma-MIR166n, zma-MIR167j, zma-MIR169l, zma-MIR169m, zma-MIR169n, zma-MIR169o, zma-MIR169p, zma-MIR169q, zma-MIR169r, zma-MIR171l, zma-MIR171m, zma-MIR171n, zma-MIR393b, zma-MIR393c, zma-MIR395d, zma-MIR395e, zma-MIR395f, zma-MIR395g, zma-MIR395h, zma-MIR395i, zma-MIR395j, zma-MIR395k, zma-MIR395l, zma-MIR395m, zma-MIR395n, zma-MIR395o, zma-MIR395p, zma-MIR482, zma-MIR528a, zma-MIR528b, zma-MIR529, zma-MIR827, zma-MIR1432, osa-MIR395x, osa-MIR395y, osa-MIR2275c, osa-MIR2275d, ath-MIR156i, ath-MIR156j
In Arobidopsis, MiRNA159 has been shown to be involved in the regulation of seed dormancy and germination by targeting MYB33 and MYB101, two positive regulators of ABA responses during germination. [score:4]
For example, miR156/157, miR159/319, miR166, miR169, and miR394 have been found in 51, 45, 41, 40 and 40 plant species, respectively [36- 38]. [score:1]
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30
[+] score: 5
30 pg or 30 ng of the synthetic Arabidopsis thaliana miR-159a (ath-miR-159a; 5’-UUUGGAUUGAAGGGAGCUCUA-3’) (Integrated DNA Technologies) was spiked-in to each sample after the initial lysis step to test extraction efficiency. [score:1]
As part of this experiment, we also spiked-in ath-miR-159a at a concentration of 30 ng (1000-fold higher than in the previous kit comparisons) to test whether this resulted in saturation of either the column or the qPCR. [score:1]
A. Average C [T] values obtained for hsa-miR-191, hsa-miR-21 and ath-miR-159a on cDNA and pre-amplified cDNA (Pre-Amp) from 1 ml of plasma. [score:1]
D. Average C [T] values obtained analysing hsa-miR-191, hsa-miR-21 and ath-miR-159a in cDNA produced from 1 ml, 500 µl or 200 µl of plasma using the miRNeasy Serum/Plasma kit. [score:1]
Average C [T] values obtained for hsa-miR-191, hsa-miR-21 and ath-miR-159a on cDNA and pre-amplified cDNA (Pre-Amp) from 1 ml of plasma. [score:1]
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[+] score: 5
Overexpression of miR159 results in male sterility and delayed flowering time. [score:3]
Some miRNAs, such as miR159 and miR160, play roles during early development stages including seed germination. [score:2]
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[+] score: 4
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR156a, ath-MIR156b, ath-MIR156c, ath-MIR156d, ath-MIR156e, ath-MIR156f, ath-MIR172a, ath-MIR172b, ath-MIR159b, ath-MIR319a, ath-MIR319b, ath-MIR172c, ath-MIR172d, ath-MIR390a, ath-MIR390b, ath-MIR399a, ath-MIR399b, ath-MIR399c, ath-MIR399d, ath-MIR399e, ath-MIR399f, ath-MIR156g, ath-MIR156h, ath-MIR159c, ath-MIR319c, ath-MIR172e, gma-MIR156d, gma-MIR156e, gma-MIR156c, gma-MIR159a, gma-MIR172a, gma-MIR172b, gma-MIR319a, gma-MIR319b, gma-MIR156a, gma-MIR319c, gma-MIR156b, gma-MIR159b, gma-MIR159c, gma-MIR390a, gma-MIR390b, gma-MIR172c, gma-MIR172d, gma-MIR172e, gma-MIR156f, gma-MIR172f, gma-MIR156g, gma-MIR159d, gma-MIR156h, gma-MIR156i, gma-MIR319d, gma-MIR319e, gma-MIR319f, gma-MIR390c, gma-MIR156j, gma-MIR156k, gma-MIR156l, gma-MIR156m, gma-MIR156n, gma-MIR156o, gma-MIR159e, gma-MIR159f, gma-MIR172g, gma-MIR172h, gma-MIR172i, gma-MIR172j, gma-MIR319g, gma-MIR319h, gma-MIR319i, gma-MIR319j, gma-MIR319k, gma-MIR319l, gma-MIR319m, ath-MIR156i, ath-MIR156j, gma-MIR399a, gma-MIR156p, gma-MIR172k, gma-MIR156q, gma-MIR172l, gma-MIR319n, gma-MIR156r, gma-MIR399b, gma-MIR156s, gma-MIR156t, gma-MIR399c, gma-MIR399d, gma-MIR399e, gma-MIR399f, gma-MIR399g, gma-MIR399h, gma-MIR156u, gma-MIR156v, gma-MIR156w, gma-MIR156x, gma-MIR156y, gma-MIR156z, gma-MIR156aa, gma-MIR156ab, gma-MIR390d, gma-MIR390e, gma-MIR390f, gma-MIR390g, gma-MIR319o, gma-MIR319p, gma-MIR399i, gma-MIR319q, gma-MIR399j, gma-MIR399k, gma-MIR399l, gma-MIR399m, gma-MIR399n, gma-MIR399o
When miR159 was overexpressed, plants flowering time was delayed in SD condition with decreased levels of MYB33 and LFY in Arabidopsis [15]. [score:3]
The main players are the miR156, miR159 and miR172 families. [score:1]
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[+] score: 4
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR159b, ath-MIR159c, ppe-MIR159
For example, the miR159-regulated MYB33/65 plays a role in disease symptom induction by Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Arabidopsis [51]. [score:4]
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[+] score: 3
Note that an extended exposure time was needed to detect expression of most miRNAs (indicated by a number in days in parentheses in Figure 2), suggesting that their abundance is significantly lower than that of other known miRNAs (that is, miR158 and miR159a in Figure 2c, and data not shown). [score:3]
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35
[+] score: 3
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR156a, ath-MIR156b, ath-MIR156c, ath-MIR156d, ath-MIR156e, ath-MIR156f, ath-MIR169a, ath-MIR159b, osa-MIR156a, osa-MIR156b, osa-MIR156c, osa-MIR156d, osa-MIR156e, osa-MIR156f, osa-MIR156g, osa-MIR156h, osa-MIR156i, osa-MIR156j, osa-MIR169a, ath-MIR169b, ath-MIR169c, ath-MIR169d, ath-MIR169e, ath-MIR169f, ath-MIR169g, ath-MIR169h, ath-MIR169i, ath-MIR169j, ath-MIR169k, ath-MIR169l, ath-MIR169m, ath-MIR169n, ath-MIR391, ath-MIR156g, ath-MIR156h, ath-MIR159c, osa-MIR156k, osa-MIR156l, osa-MIR159a, osa-MIR159b, osa-MIR159c, osa-MIR159d, osa-MIR159e, osa-MIR159f, osa-MIR169b, osa-MIR169c, osa-MIR169d, osa-MIR169e, osa-MIR169f, osa-MIR169g, osa-MIR169h, osa-MIR169i, osa-MIR169j, osa-MIR169k, osa-MIR169l, osa-MIR169m, osa-MIR169n, osa-MIR169o, osa-MIR169p, osa-MIR169q, gma-MIR156d, gma-MIR156e, gma-MIR156c, gma-MIR159a, gma-MIR156a, gma-MIR156b, gma-MIR169a, osa-MIR535, ath-MIR781a, ath-MIR782, ath-MIR847, osa-MIR169r, gma-MIR159b, gma-MIR159c, gma-MIR169b, gma-MIR169c, osa-MIR1846d, osa-MIR1857, osa-MIR1846a, osa-MIR1846b, osa-MIR1846c, osa-MIR1846e, ath-MIR2112, osa-MIR2118a, osa-MIR2118b, osa-MIR2118c, osa-MIR2118d, osa-MIR2118e, osa-MIR2118f, osa-MIR2118g, osa-MIR2118h, osa-MIR2118i, osa-MIR2118j, osa-MIR2118k, osa-MIR2118l, osa-MIR2118m, osa-MIR2118n, osa-MIR2118o, osa-MIR2118p, osa-MIR2118q, osa-MIR2118r, gma-MIR391, gma-MIR156f, gma-MIR169d, gma-MIR169e, gma-MIR156g, gma-MIR159d, gma-MIR156h, gma-MIR156i, gma-MIR169f, gma-MIR169g, gma-MIR2118a, gma-MIR2118b, gma-MIR169h, gma-MIR169i, gma-MIR156j, gma-MIR156k, gma-MIR156l, gma-MIR156m, gma-MIR156n, gma-MIR156o, gma-MIR159e, gma-MIR159f, gma-MIR169j, gma-MIR169k, gma-MIR169l, gma-MIR169m, gma-MIR169n, ath-MIR781b, ath-MIR156i, ath-MIR156j, gma-MIR156p, gma-MIR156q, gma-MIR169o, gma-MIR169p, gma-MIR156r, gma-MIR156s, gma-MIR169r, gma-MIR169s, gma-MIR156t, gma-MIR169t, gma-MIR169u, gma-MIR156u, gma-MIR156v, gma-MIR156w, gma-MIR156x, gma-MIR156y, gma-MIR156z, gma-MIR156aa, gma-MIR156ab, gma-MIR169v, gma-MIR169w
Although only a few cleavage targets of the highly accumulated RC-miRNAs were detected, several RC-miRNAs were shown to possess great potential to guide DNA methylation in both Arabidopsis (RC_ath-miR2112, RC_ath-miR391, RC_ath-miR781, RC_ath-miR782, and RC_ath-miR847) and rice (RC_osa-miR156, RC_osa-miR159, RC_osa-miR169, RC_osa-miR1846, RC_osa-miR2118, and RC_osa-miR535) (Figure 4 and Table S6). [score:3]
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36
[+] score: 3
The involvement of miRNAs as key regulators of flowering time (miR159, miR172, miR156, and miR171), hormone signaling (miR159, miR160, miR167, miR164, and miR393), or shoot and root development (miR164), was reviewed by (Wang and Li, 2007). [score:3]
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37
[+] score: 3
In plants, the importance of sequences flanking a miRNA target site has been demonstrated for miR159 [42, 67] and for several miRNA-cleaved transcripts that generate phasiRNAs [68]. [score:3]
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38
[+] score: 3
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR159b, ath-MIR159c
Total RNA extraction and northern blot analysis examining small RNAs corresponding to the 45S rDNA, 5S rDNA, and miR159 were performed as described [2, 13]. [score:1]
The microRNA miR159 was used as a loading control. [score:1]
Probe sequences are as follows: 45S siRNA: 5′-GTCTGTTGGTGCCAAGAGGGAAAAGGGCTAAT-3′; 5S siRNA: 5′-ATGCCAAGTTTGGCCTCACGGTCT-3′; miR159: 5′-TAGAGCTCCCTTCAATCCAAA-3′. [score:1]
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[+] score: 3
While auxin signalling pathway is regulated by miR160, miR167, miR390 and miR393, the JA biosynthetic pathway is under the control of miR319 and miR159, and miR159 regulate the ABA signalling pathway (Curaba et al. 2014). [score:3]
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40
[+] score: 2
The repertoire of known bacterial-responsive miRNAs has increased and includes several families known to regulate hormone signaling, such as miR160, miR167 and miR390 involved in auxin signaling, miR159 involved in ABA signaling and miR319 involved in jasmonic acid signaling [13- 15]. [score:2]
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41
[+] score: 2
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR159b, ath-MIR159c
As a positive control, an oligonucleotide with sequence complementary to miR159 was labelled with T4 polynucleotide kinase and γ [32]P-ATP. [score:1]
Hybridization with an miR159 probe was used to determine equal loading of the RNA samples. [score:1]
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[+] score: 2
For example, miR159, miR165, miR166, and miR168 are usually incorporated into AGO1 -based RISCs, but associate with other AGOs in AGO1 -deficient Arabidopsis mutants, where this redirection is supposed to be mediated by stabilizing proteins (Vaucheret, 2009; Zhu et al., 2011). [score:2]
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43
[+] score: 1
ath-miR159a, ath-miR164b, ath-miR172a, ath-miR319a, and osa-miR528 recently been developed and tested. [score:1]
[1 to 20 of 1 sentences]
44
[+] score: 1
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR159b, ath-MIR159c
Small RNAs were separated by gel electrophoresis, blotted onto nitrocellulose membrane and hybridized with end-labeled oligonucleotide probes miR159 (5′-TAGAGCTCCCTTCAATCCAAA-3′) and 5S siRNA (5′-ATGCCAAGTTTGGCCTCACGGTCT-3′) [61]. [score:1]
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45
[+] score: 1
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR159b, ath-MIR159c
miR159 was probed as a loading control. [score:1]
[1 to 20 of 1 sentences]
46
[+] score: 1
Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR156a, ath-MIR156b, ath-MIR156c, ath-MIR156d, ath-MIR156e, ath-MIR156f, ath-MIR157a, ath-MIR157b, ath-MIR157c, ath-MIR157d, ath-MIR165a, ath-MIR165b, ath-MIR166a, ath-MIR166b, ath-MIR166c, ath-MIR166d, ath-MIR166e, ath-MIR166f, ath-MIR166g, ath-MIR169a, ath-MIR170, ath-MIR171a, ath-MIR172a, ath-MIR172b, ath-MIR159b, ath-MIR319a, ath-MIR319b, osa-MIR156a, osa-MIR156b, osa-MIR156c, osa-MIR156d, osa-MIR156e, osa-MIR156f, osa-MIR156g, osa-MIR156h, osa-MIR156i, osa-MIR156j, osa-MIR166a, osa-MIR166b, osa-MIR166c, osa-MIR166d, osa-MIR166e, osa-MIR166f, osa-MIR169a, osa-MIR171a, ath-MIR169b, ath-MIR169c, ath-MIR169d, ath-MIR169e, ath-MIR169f, ath-MIR169g, ath-MIR169h, ath-MIR169i, ath-MIR169j, ath-MIR169k, ath-MIR169l, ath-MIR169m, ath-MIR169n, ath-MIR171b, ath-MIR171c, ath-MIR172c, ath-MIR172d, ath-MIR395a, ath-MIR395b, ath-MIR395c, ath-MIR395d, ath-MIR395e, ath-MIR395f, ath-MIR399a, ath-MIR399b, ath-MIR399c, ath-MIR399d, ath-MIR399e, ath-MIR399f, osa-MIR395b, osa-MIR395d, osa-MIR395e, osa-MIR395g, osa-MIR395h, osa-MIR395i, osa-MIR395j, osa-MIR395k, osa-MIR395l, osa-MIR395s, osa-MIR395t, osa-MIR395c, osa-MIR395a, osa-MIR395f, osa-MIR395u, osa-MIR399a, osa-MIR399b, osa-MIR399c, osa-MIR399d, osa-MIR399e, osa-MIR399f, osa-MIR399g, osa-MIR399h, osa-MIR399i, osa-MIR399j, osa-MIR399k, ath-MIR401, ath-MIR156g, ath-MIR156h, ath-MIR159c, ath-MIR319c, ath-MIR172e, osa-MIR156k, osa-MIR156l, osa-MIR159a, osa-MIR159b, osa-MIR159c, osa-MIR159d, osa-MIR159e, osa-MIR159f, osa-MIR319a, osa-MIR319b, osa-MIR166k, osa-MIR166l, osa-MIR169b, osa-MIR169c, osa-MIR169d, osa-MIR169e, osa-MIR169f, osa-MIR169g, osa-MIR169h, osa-MIR169i, osa-MIR169j, osa-MIR169k, osa-MIR169l, osa-MIR169m, osa-MIR169n, osa-MIR169o, osa-MIR169p, osa-MIR169q, osa-MIR171b, osa-MIR171c, osa-MIR171d, osa-MIR171e, osa-MIR171f, osa-MIR171g, osa-MIR172a, osa-MIR172b, osa-MIR172c, osa-MIR166g, osa-MIR166h, osa-MIR166i, osa-MIR171h, osa-MIR172d, osa-MIR171i, osa-MIR166m, osa-MIR166j, ath-MIR413, ath-MIR414, ath-MIR415, ath-MIR416, ath-MIR417, osa-MIR413, osa-MIR414, osa-MIR415, osa-MIR416, osa-MIR417, ath-MIR426, osa-MIR426, osa-MIR438, osa-MIR444a, ptc-MIR156a, ptc-MIR156b, ptc-MIR156c, ptc-MIR156d, ptc-MIR156e, ptc-MIR156f, ptc-MIR156g, ptc-MIR156h, ptc-MIR156i, ptc-MIR156j, ptc-MIR156k, ptc-MIR159a, ptc-MIR159b, ptc-MIR159d, ptc-MIR159e, ptc-MIR159c, ptc-MIR166a, ptc-MIR166b, ptc-MIR166c, ptc-MIR166d, ptc-MIR166e, ptc-MIR166f, ptc-MIR166g, ptc-MIR166h, ptc-MIR166i, ptc-MIR166j, ptc-MIR166k, ptc-MIR166l, ptc-MIR166m, ptc-MIR166n, ptc-MIR166o, ptc-MIR166p, ptc-MIR166q, ptc-MIR169a, ptc-MIR169aa, ptc-MIR169ab, ptc-MIR169ac, ptc-MIR169ad, ptc-MIR169ae, ptc-MIR169af, ptc-MIR169b, ptc-MIR169c, ptc-MIR169d, ptc-MIR169e, ptc-MIR169f, ptc-MIR169g, ptc-MIR169h, ptc-MIR169i, ptc-MIR169j, ptc-MIR169k, ptc-MIR169l, ptc-MIR169m, ptc-MIR169n, ptc-MIR169o, ptc-MIR169p, ptc-MIR169q, ptc-MIR169r, ptc-MIR169s, ptc-MIR169t, ptc-MIR169u, ptc-MIR169v, ptc-MIR169w, ptc-MIR169x, ptc-MIR169y, ptc-MIR169z, ptc-MIR171a, ptc-MIR171b, ptc-MIR171c, ptc-MIR171d, ptc-MIR171e, ptc-MIR171f, ptc-MIR171g, ptc-MIR171h, ptc-MIR171i, ptc-MIR172a, ptc-MIR172b, ptc-MIR172c, ptc-MIR172d, ptc-MIR172e, ptc-MIR172f, ptc-MIR172g, ptc-MIR172h, ptc-MIR172i, ptc-MIR319a, ptc-MIR319b, ptc-MIR319c, ptc-MIR319d, ptc-MIR319e, ptc-MIR319f, ptc-MIR319g, ptc-MIR319h, ptc-MIR319i, ptc-MIR395a, ptc-MIR395b, ptc-MIR395c, ptc-MIR395d, ptc-MIR395e, ptc-MIR395f, ptc-MIR395g, ptc-MIR395h, ptc-MIR395i, ptc-MIR395j, ptc-MIR399a, ptc-MIR399b, ptc-MIR399d, ptc-MIR399f, ptc-MIR399g, ptc-MIR399h, ptc-MIR399i, ptc-MIR399j, ptc-MIR399c, ptc-MIR399e, ptc-MIR481a, ptc-MIR482a, osa-MIR395m, osa-MIR395n, osa-MIR395o, osa-MIR395p, osa-MIR395q, osa-MIR395v, osa-MIR395w, osa-MIR395r, ptc-MIR171k, osa-MIR169r, osa-MIR444b, osa-MIR444c, osa-MIR444d, osa-MIR444e, osa-MIR444f, ptc-MIR171l, ptc-MIR171m, ptc-MIR171j, osa-MIR395x, osa-MIR395y, ath-MIR156i, ath-MIR156j, ptc-MIR482d, ptc-MIR156l, ptc-MIR169ag, ptc-MIR482b, ptc-MIR395k, ptc-MIR482c
In Arabidopsis, only the miR171 family is divided in two families, and the following miRBase families are pairwise grouped together: MIR319–MIR159, MIR156–MIR157, MIR165–MIR166, and MIR170–MIR171. [score:1]
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[+] score: 1
In the 64 predicted conserved miRNAs, 20 miRNA sequences including 9 miRNA families' (miR894, miR156, miR159, miR2118, miR397, miR1511, miR535, miR529 and miR396) average signal intensity were higher than 1000. [score:1]
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Also, several microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in these pathways to maintain homeostasis and accurate flowering time, i. e., miRNA159 in the phytohormone pathway [8], miRNA156 in the autonomous pathway [9, 10], and miRNA172 in the photoperiod pathway. [score:1]
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Other miRNAs from this paper: ath-MIR159b, ath-MIR319a, ath-MIR319b, ath-MIR159c, ath-MIR319c
A loop-to-base processing mechanism underlies the biogenesis of plant microRNAs miR319 and miR159. [score:1]
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ABA induction of miR159 controls transcript levels of two MYB factors during Arabidopsis seed germination. [score:1]
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[+] score: 1
In Arabidopsis, miR156, miR158, miR159, miR165, miR167, miR168, miR169, miR171, miR319, miR393, miR394 and miR396 are drought-responsive. [score:1]
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[+] score: 1
Note that MIR159 and MIR319 derived members were counted separately, even though they are frequently assigned to the same family [31], [57]. [score:1]
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