Stem-loop sequence hsa-mir-199a-2
|Description||Homo sapiens miR-199a-2 stem-loop|
|Gene family||MIPF0000040; mir-199|
This text is a summary paragraph taken from the Wikipedia entry entitled mir-199_microRNA_precursor. miRBase and Rfam are facilitating community annotation of microRNA families and entries in Wikipedia. Read more ...
The miR-199 microRNA precursor (homologous to miR-215), is a short non-coding RNA gene involved in gene regulation. miR-192 and miR-215 have now been predicted or experimentally confirmed in mouse, human and a further 21 other species. (MIPF0000040). microRNAs are transcribed as ~70 nucleotide precursors and subsequently processed by the Dicer enzyme to give a ~22 nucleotide product. The mature products are thought to have regulatory roles through complementarity to mRNA.
The miR-199 microRNA precursor (homologous to miR-215), is a short non-coding RNA gene involved in gene regulation. miR-192 and miR-215 have now been predicted or experimentally confirmed in mouse, human and a further 21 other species.    (MIPF0000040). microRNAs are transcribed as ~70 nucleotide precursors and subsequently processed by the Dicer enzyme to give a ~22 nucleotide product. The mature products are thought to have regulatory roles through complementarity to mRNA.
 Targets of miR-199
MicroRNA hsa-miR-199a is a regulator of IκB kinase-β (IKKβ) expression.
 Expression patterns of miR-199
Using TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR array methods, miRNA expression has been profiled. miR-199a, one of the most significantly overexpressed in invasive squamous cell carcinomas (ISCCs), was evaluated by transfecting cervical cancer cells (SiHa and ME-180) with anti-miR-199a oligonucleotides and the cell viability assessed. mirR-199a*, mir199a and mirR-199b were significantly overexpressed in ISCCs.
Comparative miRNA array led to the isolation of several Bone Morphogenic Protein 2 (BMP2)-responsive miRNAs. Among them, miR-199a* is of particular interest, because it was reported to be specifically expressed in the skeletal system.
 Clinical relevance of miR-199
Alcoholic liver disease is a common medical consequence of chronic alcohol abuse. Activation of hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α) is an indicator of hypoxia. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a protein that constricts blood vessels and raises blood pressure. It has been shown that ethanol-induced miR-199 down-regulation may contribute to augmented HIF-1α and ET-1 expression.
 Further reading
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Lagos-Quintana et al.  cloned miR-199 from human osteoblast sarcoma cells. They also reported identification of a miRNA from the opposite arm in mouse cells. This sequence was named miR-199-s and the sequence from the 3' arm of the homologous mouse precursor miR-199-as. Lim et al.  independently predicted this miRNA computationally using conservation with mouse and Fugu rubripes sequences . Expression of the miR excised from the 5' arm was validated in zebrafish, and the ends mapped by cloning. The excised miR sequences are renamed miR-199a (to avoid confusion with the subsequently identified miR-199b (MI0000282 )) and miR-199a* (from the 3' arm) here. The two putative hairpin precursors in human map to chromosome 19 (mir-199a-1, MI0000242 ) and chromosome 1 (mir-199a-2, MI0000281 ). Landgraf et al. show that both mature products are expressed, prompting the renaming to miR-199a-5p and miR-199a-3p .
Mature sequence hsa-miR-199a-5p
|Deep sequencing||4263 reads, 36 experiments|
|Evidence||experimental; cloned [2-4]|
Mature sequence hsa-miR-199a-3p
|Deep sequencing||159789 reads, 54 experiments|
|Evidence||experimental; cloned , Solexa |
PMID:15978578 "Identification of human fetal liver miRNAs by a novel method" FEBS Lett. 579:3849-3854(2005).
PMID:17604727 "A mammalian microRNA expression atlas based on small RNA library sequencing" Cell. 129:1401-1414(2007).